Stratospheric water vapor decline credited with slowing global warming

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 6:18 PM GMT on January 29, 2010

Share this Blog
6
+

After a steep rise in global average temperatures in the 1990s, the 2000s have seen relatively flat temperatures, despite increasing levels of CO2 emissions by humans. This reduced warming may be partially due to a sharp decrease in stratospheric water vapor that began after 2000, according to research published yesterday in Science by a team of researchers led by Dr. Susan Solomon of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder. Water vapor is a potent greenhouse gas capable of significantly warming the planet, and its potency is much higher when it is located in the lower stratosphere where temperatures are extremely cold. Greenhouse gases located in cold regions of the atmosphere are more effective at heating the planet because they absorb heat radiation from the Earth's relatively warm surface, but then re-emit energy at a much colder temperature, resulting in less heat energy lost to space. Even though stratospheric water vapor can exist at concentrations more than 100 times lower than at the surface, the 10% drop in stratospheric water vapor since 2000 noted by Solomon et al. acted to slow down global warming by 25% between 2000 - 2009, compared to that which would have occurred due only to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.


Figure 1. Stratospheric water vapor in the tropics, between 5°S - 5°N, as measured by the HALOE instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), between 1993 - 2005. The bottom portion of the plot shows the lower stratosphere, just above where tall thunderstorms are able to transport water vapor into the stratosphere. A strong yearly cycle is evident in the water vapor, due to the seasonal variation in heavy thunderstorms over the tropics. Once in the lower stratosphere, the waver vapor takes about 1.2 years to travel to the upper stratosphere, as seen in the bending of the contours to the right with height. Note that beginning in 2001, very low water vapor concentrations less than 2.2 parts per million by volume (ppmv) began appearing in the lower stratosphere, due to substantial cooling. Image credit: Rosenlof, K. H., and G. C. Reid (2008), Trends in the temperature and water vapor content of the tropical lower stratosphere: Sea surface connection, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009109.

The observations
We haven't been able to observe water vapor in the stratosphere very long--accurate global measurements only go back to 1991, when the HALOE instrument aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) began taking data (Figure 1). Stratospheric water vapor showed an increase of about 0.5 parts per million by volume (ppmv) during the 1990s. But after 2000, a sudden drop of 0.4 ppmv was observed, and this decrease has persisted into 2009. To see how these changes impacted the amount of global warming, Solomon et al. fed the observations into a specialized high-resolution model that computed the change in heat from the fluctuating water vapor levels. They found that the increase in stratospheric water vapor in the 1990s led to about a 30% increase in the amount of global warming observed during that decade, and the decrease of 0.4 ppmv since 2000 led to a 25% reduction between 2000 - 2009.

How water vapor gets into the stratosphere
The stratosphere has two main sources of water vapor: transport from the lower atmosphere (the troposphere) via tall thunderstorms, and the chemical breakdown of methane gas into water vapor and carbon dioxide. With regard to greenhouse effect warming, transport of water vapor by thunderstorms is the most important source, since this mechanism delivers water vapor to the lowest part of the stratosphere, where temperatures are coldest and greenhouse gases are more effective at warming the climate. There is a limit as to how much water vapor that can enter the stratosphere via thunderstorms, though. Temperature decreases with altitude from the surface to the bottom of the stratosphere, where they begin to rise with height due to the solar energy-absorbing effect of the stratospheric ozone layer. As moisture-laden air rises in thunderstorms towards the lower stratosphere, it encounters the atmosphere's "cold point"--the coldest point in the lower atmosphere, at the base of the stratosphere. Since the amount of water vapor that can be present in the atmosphere decreases as the temperature gets colder, and moisture being transported to the stratosphere must traverse through the "cold point" of the atmosphere, the air gets "freeze dried" and loses most of its moisture.


Figure 2. The departure from average of tropopause temperature (dark line) and Sea Surface Temperature (light dashed line) for the tropical Pacific Ocean between 10°S - 10°N, from 1981 - 2007. The tropopause is the bottom boundary of the stratosphere. The SST data is for 139°W - 171°W longitude, and is from the NOAA Optimal Interpolation v2 data set. The tropopause data is from balloon soundings, for the region 171°W - 200°W. The SST is plotted so that the anomalies increase as one looks down. Note that prior to about 2000, tropopause temperatures and SSTs increased and decreased together, but that beginning in 2000 - 2001, a sharp climate shift occurred, and the two quantities became anti-correlated. The sudden drop in tropopause temperature in 2000 - 2001 caused a sharp drop in stratospheric water vapor. Image credit: Rosenlof, K. H., and G. C. Reid (2008), Trends in the temperature and water vapor content of the tropical lower stratosphere: Sea surface connection, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009109.

Why did stratospheric water vapor drop in 2000?
Tall thunderstorms capable of delivering water vapor into the stratosphere occur primarily in the tropics, particularly over the Western Pacific, where a huge warm pool with very high Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exists. In 2000, this region experienced a sharp increase in SST of 0.25°C, which has remained consistent though the 2000s (Figure 2). Coincident with this increase in SST came a sharp drop in the "cold point" temperature of the tropopause--the lower boundary of the stratosphere. This reduction in "cold point" temperature meant that less water vapor could make it into the stratosphere over the Tropical Pacific, since more thunderstorm water was getting "freeze dried" out. Did global warming trigger this increase in Pacific SST, resulting in cooling of the "cold point" and less water vapor in the stratosphere? Or was it random variation due to some decades-long natural cycle? This key question was left unanswered by the Solomon et al. study, and observations of stratospheric water vapor don't go back far enough to offer a reasonable guess. One factor arguing against global warming having triggered a negative feedback of this nature is that prior to 2000, increases in Western Pacific SST caused increases in "cold point" temperatures--behavior opposite of what has been seen since 2000.

If global warming has triggered the decrease in stratospheric water vapor seen since 2000, it could mean that the climate models have predicted too much global warming, since they don't predict that such a negative feedback exists. On the other hand, if this is a natural cycle, we can expect the recent flattening in global temperatures to average out in the long run, with a return to steeper increases in temperature in the coming decades. Climate models currently do a poor job modeling the complex dynamics of water vapor in the stratosphere, and are not much help figuring out what's going on. Complicating the issue is the fact that about 15% of all thunderstorms capable of delivering water vapor into the stratosphere are generated by tropical cyclones (Rosenlof and Reid, 2008), and tropical cyclones are not well-treated by climate models. We also have to factor in the impact of stratospheric ozone loss, which acts to cool the lower stratosphere. This effect should gradually decrease in future decades as CFC levels decline, though. The stratosphere is a devilishly complicated place that can have a significant impact on global climate change, and we are many years from understanding what is going on there.

References
Romps, D.M., and Z. Kuang, "Overshooting convection in tropical cyclones", Geophysical Research Letters, 2009; 36 (9): L09804 DOI: 10.1029/2009GL037396

Rosenlof, K. H., and G. C. Reid (2008), Trends in the temperature and water vapor content of the tropical lower stratosphere: Sea surface connection, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009109.

Portlight Haiti update
Paul Timmons, who directs the Portlight.org disaster-relief charity that has sprung up from the hard work and dedication of many members of the wunderground.com community, was interviewed by NBC yesterday. The reporter doing the story is planning to follow the Portlight-donated goods to Haiti and interview the people with disabilities that receive the donations. It is uncertain when the story will be aired, but I'll try to give everyone a heads-up.

Next post
My next post will probably be Tuesday (Groundhog's Day), when I plan to discuss Phil's forecast for the rest of winter. I'll throw in my two cents worth, too.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 553 - 503

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17Blog Index

Quoting tornadodude:
wow, definitely was a slow night in here! have a great one everyone! (:
I been out to party ;) Which btw was quiet a task as almost all the streets and sidewalks are completly iced.
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
wow, definitely was a slow night in here! have a great one everyone! (:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
wow everybody went ni-night - i think i'll do the same
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Two dollars from a young girl in Malaysia, $14.65 (to another NPO) from a group of homeless people in Baltimore...proof that little acts create big works.

Please give what you can...as often as you can. Portlight is making progress each day in Haiti. This is not a sprint, it's a marathon. Please keep pacing us, as Portlight continues to bring mobility, accessibility and HOPE to Haiti. Your support means everything!!!

Donate to Portlight
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

DYNAMIC OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY



The mean dynamic ocean topography (DOT) is the difference between the time-averaged sea surface and the geoid (the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field that best fits the mean sea surface). All geoid slopes are 'horizontal'. A tilt of the the sea surface relative to the horizontal measures the strength of surface 'geostrophic' currents. The DOT measures the long-term-averaged strength of ocean currents, the 'steady-state' circulation. One example is the Gulf Stream, whose position averaged over any one year now is about the same as in 1786, when Benjamin Franklin and Timothy Folger charted it (Richardson, 1980). The North-South (meridional) gradient of the DOT is proportional to the East-West (zonal) geostrophic component of ocean surface current velocities (the rest is the wind-driven Ekman current); the zonal gradient of the DOT is proportional to the meridional velocity.

The DOT can be constructed from geodetic data: an altimetric mean sea surface (from over a decade of radar altimetry), and an accurate geoid.

The DOT can also be constructed by combining in-situ oceanoraphic data (temperature and salinity of seawater, direct measurements of current velocity, etc). A third way is by combining the geodetic estimate (altimetry and geoid) with the traditional oceanographic estimate (Niiler et al, 2003).

Here we offer a recent (Jul-Aug 2008), purely geodetic estimate. It was prepared by Don Chambers (U. Texas-Austin), from the Mean Sea Surface constructed by O. Andersen, P. Knudsen and colleagues et at at the Danish National Space Center (Mean Sea Surface (Knudsen, Vest, Andersen) ) and the geoid comstructed by Nikos Pavlis and colleagues(EGM-2008 Geoid) based on GRACE data, other space and situ gravity data.

DYNAMIC OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY

EASTWARD GEOSTROPHIC VELOCITY
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Recent Greenland ice loss responsible for one sixth of sea-level rise

Between 2000 and 2008, Greenland lost 1500 cubic kilometres of ice, which is responsible for one-sixth of global sea-level rise, says scientists.

Michiel van den Broeke of Utrecht University in the Netherlands and colleagues say that the bad news is that the rate of ice loss is increasing.

To reach the conclusion, researchers began by modelling the difference in annual snowfall and snowmelt in Greenland between 2003 and 2008 to reveal the net ice loss for each year. They then compared each year's loss with that calculated from readings by the GRACE satellite, which "weighs" the ice sheet by measuring its gravity.

The researchers found that results from the two methods roughly matched and showed that Greenland is losing enough ice to contribute on average 0.46 millimetres per year to global sea-level rise.

The loss may be accelerating: since 2006, warm summers have caused levels to rise by 0.75 millimetres per year, though van den Broeke says we can't be sure whether this trend will continue.

Sea levels are rising globally by 3 millimetres on average.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
546. Skyepony (Mod)
This is NASA's recent thoughts on Antarctica melting. Lot of good stuff about Pine Island, GRACE..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
545. Skyepony (Mod)
Recent changes in Arctic sea ice melt onset, freezeup, and melt season length

Recent changes in Arctic sea ice melt onset, freezeup, and melt season length
Thorsten Markus (Cryospheric Sciences Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, U.S.A.), Julienne C. Stroeve (National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, U.S.A.) and Jeffrey Miller (Wyle Information Sciences, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, U.S.A.)

Abstract

In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freezeup, and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freezeup. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freezeup for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (0.4 d decade−1), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e., toward earlier melt. The trends range from −1.0 d decade−1 for the Bering Sea to −7.3 d decade−1 for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend toward later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort seas and Laptev/East Siberian seas observe the strongest trends with 7 d decade−1. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 10 d decade−1 are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea, the Laptev/East Siberian seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort seas. Those trends are statistically significant at the 99% level.

Received 13 April 2009; accepted 4 September 2009; published 29 December 2009.

Citation: Markus, T., J. C. Stroeve, and J. Miller (2009), Recent changes in Arctic sea ice melt onset, freezeup, and melt season length, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C12024; doi: 10.1029/2009JC005436.

Link to abstract: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2009/2009JC005436.shtml
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
#541 & #543, Skyepony very interesting reads a "lil intense", but that is good information!
Member Since: August 25, 2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
543. Skyepony (Mod)
Large-scale controls of methanogenesis inferred from methane and gravity spaceborne data
A. Anthony Bloom,1 Paul I. Palmer,1,* Annemarie Fraser,1 David S. Reay,1 and Christian Frankenberg2
Abstract
Wetlands are the largest individual source of methane (CH4), but the magnitude and distribution of this source are poorly understood on continental scales. We isolated the wetland and rice paddy contributions to spaceborne CH4 measurements over 2003–2005 using satellite observations of gravity anomalies, a proxy for water-table depth {Gamma}, and surface temperature analyses TS. We find that tropical and higher-latitude CH4 variations are largely described by {Gamma} and TS variations, respectively. Our work suggests that tropical wetlands contribute 52 to 58% of global emissions, with the remainder coming from the extra-tropics, 2% of which is from Arctic latitudes. We estimate a 7% rise in wetland CH4 emissions over 2003–2007, due to warming of mid-latitude and Arctic wetland regions, which we find is consistent with recent changes in atmospheric CH4.
1 School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.
2 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.


*Correspondence e-mail: pip@ed.ac.uk

Link: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/327/5963/322
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
542. P451
*yawn*


lol.


Honestly I did yawn about two sentences into that.

Sorry, Skye.

Member Since: December 16, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 10202
541. Skyepony (Mod)
& now a few abstracts to lul the east coasters to sleep..

Persistent englacial drainage features in the Greenland Ice Sheet

Persistent englacial drainage features in the Greenland Ice Sheet
G. A. Catania (Institute for Geophysics, and the Department of Geology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, U.S.A.) and T. A. Neumann (Cryospheric Sciences Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, U.S.A.)

Abstract

Surface melting on the Greenland Ice Sheet is common up to ∼1400 m elevation and, in extreme melt years, even higher. Water produced on the ice sheet surface collects in lakes and drains over the ice sheet surface via supraglacial streams and through the ice sheet via moulins. Water delivered to the base of the ice sheet can cause uplift and enhanced sliding locally. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data to observe the effects of significant basal melting coincident with moulins and calculate how much basal melt occurred. We find that more melting has occurred than can be explained by the release of potential energy from the drainage of surface meltwater during one melt season suggesting that these moulins are persistent for multiple years. We find only a few persistent moulins in our study area that drain the equivalent of multiple lakes per year and likely remain active over several years. Our observations indicate that once established, these persistent moulins might be capable of establishing well-connected meltwater drainage pathways.

Received 26 September 2009; accepted 30 December 2009; published 29 January 2010.

Citation: Catania, G. A., and T. A. Neumann (2010), Persistent englacial drainage features in the Greenland Ice Sheet, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L02501, doi:10.1029/2009GL041108.

Link to abstract: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2010/2009GL041108.shtml
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
540. P451
Quoting AstroHurricane001:
537: Remember that the mind needs rest.


Yes, yes it does.

We all think we're the authority but we merely have our opinions. Of which are probably incorrect.

Our ego prevents us from taking that into consideration.

Eh, so be it.

Member Since: December 16, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 10202
539. P451
Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:
This is your personal opinion which has absolutly nothing todo with the reality and contradicts the overwhelming evidence of sciene. You should know better as the facts are posted here over and over again, still you are to ignorant to accept those. You will start to worry soon, because your earlyer argument that we will not see any significant effects (which already massive) become more pronounced every day. Already there are western nations, which struggle with national security, distribution of energy, distribution of food/water and rising cost from damage of accelerating climate change effects. Imagine the situation you go to the supermakret and cannot afford or buy bread and milk. This happend this winter already in the UK.


Is your word science?

Is your opinion science?

I think not.

You're close minded which is a shame. Seems to be the same for all AGW theorists however. Your opinion is fact and you don't want to hear what anyone else has to say.

Just seems to be the norm. Not sure why.


Member Since: December 16, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 10202
537: Remember that the mind needs rest.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
See you guys and Ladies tomorrow.
I cant figure out anything anymore.
Keep well.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
533. What's a blonde??
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting AstroHurricane001:


Is that joke implying that blondes are stupid?

maybe
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15961
LOL Aussie. Mine was too!
Met some of your countrymen on the beach today. Here for Carnival. They bought me a beer.
I love them.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting AussieStorm:

How many blondes does it take to screw in a light bulb?



Um Whats a light bulb!!!!


Is that joke implying that blondes are stupid?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Have a good one, Seastep.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
God knows....I need my beauty rest...night all...and thanks...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:
527, it's a bulb that is not heavy, Aussie. Everyboddy knows that. DUH!!

Oh come on mate!, its a joke,,,, but not a good 1
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15961
527, it's a bulb that is not heavy, Aussie. Everyboddy knows that. DUH!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Alright, I'm out. Good night all.

And, again, thanks press. Both for the jokes and the humanitarian effort.
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
Quoting presslord:
How many surrealists does it take to screw in a lightbulb?

fish

How many blondes does it take to screw in a light bulb?



Um Whats a light bulb!!!!
Member Since: September 30, 2007 Posts: 9 Comments: 15961
Jokes are much better than debates, any day.
Please dont take me seriously, it's late and I am feeling quarrelsom.

I remember a few years ago, I asked Press if he thought that we were being 'strange' disscussing some topic or other at the time.
He replied "Strange? I dont think so. We are just a couple of grown men, discussing the weather, at 11:30, on a Saturday night".
Kind of stuck in my head, that remark.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting presslord:
I'm sleepy...somebody tell me a bedtime story...


Careful what you ask for :)

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
ur killin' me press, really. Thanks.
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
How many surrealists does it take to screw in a lightbulb?

fish
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting presslord:


and THAT, boys and girls, is the $64,000 question...


Here in Canada, our Prime Minister is acting like a dictator by prorguing parliament and passing bills without the approval of the House of Commons. A new facebook movement is protesting this and trying to get him out of office after the prorogation is over in March. More here: Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
a Buddhist monk walks up to a hotdog stand...he says "Make me one with everything."
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:
505 and 506.
I know. But I think that the point was that 'we' are being somehow forced into being controlled by a "Global Government". I took that to mean that there was some individual or group that was going to take over the running of things, to our detriment, because of a disagreement about Climate Change and what causes it.
Or something. You are talking about something else apparently.


I was just using an analogy. Those that believe in Globalism do, in fact, want just that. But the other way around. Not Global govt using it, but rather using it to achieve that power.

And, yes, I believe there are those out there doing just that. Do I think they created it for that? No. But... never let a good crisis go to waste. ;)
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
Seastep...dry is good...

a priest and a rabbi walk into a bar...the bartender says "What is this...some kinda joke?!?!"
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
515 - See? Now that's a joke. My FIL is like that. He can go on forever.
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
505 and 506.
I know. But I think that the point was that 'we' are being somehow forced into being controlled by a "Global Government". I took that to mean that there was some individual or group that was going to take over the running of things, to our detriment, because of a disagreement about Climate Change and what causes it.
Or something. You are talking about something else apparently.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
LOL. Sorry Press, I don't know many jokes, so I can't finish it.

Was that at least funny? I'm told I am too dry.

Every single time I have tried a joke on here, it has fallen flat, or worse, taken the wrong way!

So I stay away from humor.
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
two blondes walk into a bar...Wouldn't ya think at least one of 'em would have seen it?!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
...yea...yea...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting presslord:
the UN is not in any way a government...it's an alliance of governments...


So tell me, in the US, are Federal, State, and local government an alliance also? Rhetorical of-course :)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting presslord:
I'm sleepy...somebody tell me a bedtime story...


So a Priest, an Irishman, and an Aussie walk into a bar....
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
Quoting AwakeInMaryland:
"Urban Heat Island Effect" -- couldn't think of that earlier today, when trading posts with Taz...

White Roofs Could Reduce Urban Heating
LiveScience Staff
livescience.com Sat Jan 30, 10:25 am ET

To help combat global warming and urban heating, we might just need to paint the town white.

A new modeling study simulated the effects of painting roofs white to reflect incoming solar rays and found that it could help cool cities and reduce the effects of global warming.

The feasibility of such an initiative for cities remains to be seen, researchers caution, but the idea has been backed by U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and other policymakers. And now there's some science behind the political support.

"Our research demonstrates that white roofs, at least in theory, can be an effective method for reducing urban heat," said Keith Oleson, the lead author of the study and a researcher at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo. "It remains to be seen if it's actually feasible for cities to paint their roofs white, but the idea certainly warrants further investigation."

Cities are particularly vulnerable to climate change because of a phenomenon known as the urban heat island effect. The asphalt roads, tar roofs and other artificial surfaces that permeate cities absorb heat from the sun, making temperatures in urban areas on average 2 to 5 degrees Fahrenheit (1 to 3 degrees Celsius) higher than in rural areas.


This is the cause of many fatalities during heatwaves. Not only will it decrease local albedo, but it will also cool the city. However, the urban heat island effect alone is not enough to explain the warming elsewhere.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I'm sleepy...somebody tell me a bedtime story...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
give it a rest already will ya


Unfortunately, not discussing a problem will not make it go away. But endless debate is also not a solution as it forestalls action that is needed.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting presslord:
the UN is not in any way a government...it's an alliance of governments...


Which is what a world government would be.

Except with more real power.
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
500....each with their own agenda. Understandably.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
And there are others, too, that have no business being on that committee.
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
Quoting pottery:
Hi Seastep. I am not sure I am following your line of thought there.
Are you saying that the UN is Global Gov., and the States you list are in Humanitarian crisis as a result of that?


No, they are deciding nations on that commission. Believe it or not.
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
Hi Seastep. I am not sure I am following your line of thought there.
Are you saying that the UN is Global Gov., and the States you list are in Humanitarian crisis as a result of that?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Ossqss:


How about this one? LoL

pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis

BTW, I think this is the official longest word in an English dictionary. Don't ask how I know that :)


I prefer supercalifragilisticexpialidocious, which of course backwards is dociousaliexpilisticfragicalirupus. But said too loud it makes you sound precocious. :)
Member Since: August 22, 2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 6010

Viewing: 553 - 503

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Overcast
44 °F
Overcast