Stratospheric water vapor decline credited with slowing global warming

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 6:18 PM GMT on January 29, 2010

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After a steep rise in global average temperatures in the 1990s, the 2000s have seen relatively flat temperatures, despite increasing levels of CO2 emissions by humans. This reduced warming may be partially due to a sharp decrease in stratospheric water vapor that began after 2000, according to research published yesterday in Science by a team of researchers led by Dr. Susan Solomon of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder. Water vapor is a potent greenhouse gas capable of significantly warming the planet, and its potency is much higher when it is located in the lower stratosphere where temperatures are extremely cold. Greenhouse gases located in cold regions of the atmosphere are more effective at heating the planet because they absorb heat radiation from the Earth's relatively warm surface, but then re-emit energy at a much colder temperature, resulting in less heat energy lost to space. Even though stratospheric water vapor can exist at concentrations more than 100 times lower than at the surface, the 10% drop in stratospheric water vapor since 2000 noted by Solomon et al. acted to slow down global warming by 25% between 2000 - 2009, compared to that which would have occurred due only to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.


Figure 1. Stratospheric water vapor in the tropics, between 5°S - 5°N, as measured by the HALOE instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), between 1993 - 2005. The bottom portion of the plot shows the lower stratosphere, just above where tall thunderstorms are able to transport water vapor into the stratosphere. A strong yearly cycle is evident in the water vapor, due to the seasonal variation in heavy thunderstorms over the tropics. Once in the lower stratosphere, the waver vapor takes about 1.2 years to travel to the upper stratosphere, as seen in the bending of the contours to the right with height. Note that beginning in 2001, very low water vapor concentrations less than 2.2 parts per million by volume (ppmv) began appearing in the lower stratosphere, due to substantial cooling. Image credit: Rosenlof, K. H., and G. C. Reid (2008), Trends in the temperature and water vapor content of the tropical lower stratosphere: Sea surface connection, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009109.

The observations
We haven't been able to observe water vapor in the stratosphere very long--accurate global measurements only go back to 1991, when the HALOE instrument aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) began taking data (Figure 1). Stratospheric water vapor showed an increase of about 0.5 parts per million by volume (ppmv) during the 1990s. But after 2000, a sudden drop of 0.4 ppmv was observed, and this decrease has persisted into 2009. To see how these changes impacted the amount of global warming, Solomon et al. fed the observations into a specialized high-resolution model that computed the change in heat from the fluctuating water vapor levels. They found that the increase in stratospheric water vapor in the 1990s led to about a 30% increase in the amount of global warming observed during that decade, and the decrease of 0.4 ppmv since 2000 led to a 25% reduction between 2000 - 2009.

How water vapor gets into the stratosphere
The stratosphere has two main sources of water vapor: transport from the lower atmosphere (the troposphere) via tall thunderstorms, and the chemical breakdown of methane gas into water vapor and carbon dioxide. With regard to greenhouse effect warming, transport of water vapor by thunderstorms is the most important source, since this mechanism delivers water vapor to the lowest part of the stratosphere, where temperatures are coldest and greenhouse gases are more effective at warming the climate. There is a limit as to how much water vapor that can enter the stratosphere via thunderstorms, though. Temperature decreases with altitude from the surface to the bottom of the stratosphere, where they begin to rise with height due to the solar energy-absorbing effect of the stratospheric ozone layer. As moisture-laden air rises in thunderstorms towards the lower stratosphere, it encounters the atmosphere's "cold point"--the coldest point in the lower atmosphere, at the base of the stratosphere. Since the amount of water vapor that can be present in the atmosphere decreases as the temperature gets colder, and moisture being transported to the stratosphere must traverse through the "cold point" of the atmosphere, the air gets "freeze dried" and loses most of its moisture.


Figure 2. The departure from average of tropopause temperature (dark line) and Sea Surface Temperature (light dashed line) for the tropical Pacific Ocean between 10°S - 10°N, from 1981 - 2007. The tropopause is the bottom boundary of the stratosphere. The SST data is for 139°W - 171°W longitude, and is from the NOAA Optimal Interpolation v2 data set. The tropopause data is from balloon soundings, for the region 171°W - 200°W. The SST is plotted so that the anomalies increase as one looks down. Note that prior to about 2000, tropopause temperatures and SSTs increased and decreased together, but that beginning in 2000 - 2001, a sharp climate shift occurred, and the two quantities became anti-correlated. The sudden drop in tropopause temperature in 2000 - 2001 caused a sharp drop in stratospheric water vapor. Image credit: Rosenlof, K. H., and G. C. Reid (2008), Trends in the temperature and water vapor content of the tropical lower stratosphere: Sea surface connection, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009109.

Why did stratospheric water vapor drop in 2000?
Tall thunderstorms capable of delivering water vapor into the stratosphere occur primarily in the tropics, particularly over the Western Pacific, where a huge warm pool with very high Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exists. In 2000, this region experienced a sharp increase in SST of 0.25°C, which has remained consistent though the 2000s (Figure 2). Coincident with this increase in SST came a sharp drop in the "cold point" temperature of the tropopause--the lower boundary of the stratosphere. This reduction in "cold point" temperature meant that less water vapor could make it into the stratosphere over the Tropical Pacific, since more thunderstorm water was getting "freeze dried" out. Did global warming trigger this increase in Pacific SST, resulting in cooling of the "cold point" and less water vapor in the stratosphere? Or was it random variation due to some decades-long natural cycle? This key question was left unanswered by the Solomon et al. study, and observations of stratospheric water vapor don't go back far enough to offer a reasonable guess. One factor arguing against global warming having triggered a negative feedback of this nature is that prior to 2000, increases in Western Pacific SST caused increases in "cold point" temperatures--behavior opposite of what has been seen since 2000.

If global warming has triggered the decrease in stratospheric water vapor seen since 2000, it could mean that the climate models have predicted too much global warming, since they don't predict that such a negative feedback exists. On the other hand, if this is a natural cycle, we can expect the recent flattening in global temperatures to average out in the long run, with a return to steeper increases in temperature in the coming decades. Climate models currently do a poor job modeling the complex dynamics of water vapor in the stratosphere, and are not much help figuring out what's going on. Complicating the issue is the fact that about 15% of all thunderstorms capable of delivering water vapor into the stratosphere are generated by tropical cyclones (Rosenlof and Reid, 2008), and tropical cyclones are not well-treated by climate models. We also have to factor in the impact of stratospheric ozone loss, which acts to cool the lower stratosphere. This effect should gradually decrease in future decades as CFC levels decline, though. The stratosphere is a devilishly complicated place that can have a significant impact on global climate change, and we are many years from understanding what is going on there.

References
Romps, D.M., and Z. Kuang, "Overshooting convection in tropical cyclones", Geophysical Research Letters, 2009; 36 (9): L09804 DOI: 10.1029/2009GL037396

Rosenlof, K. H., and G. C. Reid (2008), Trends in the temperature and water vapor content of the tropical lower stratosphere: Sea surface connection, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009109.

Portlight Haiti update
Paul Timmons, who directs the Portlight.org disaster-relief charity that has sprung up from the hard work and dedication of many members of the wunderground.com community, was interviewed by NBC yesterday. The reporter doing the story is planning to follow the Portlight-donated goods to Haiti and interview the people with disabilities that receive the donations. It is uncertain when the story will be aired, but I'll try to give everyone a heads-up.

Next post
My next post will probably be Tuesday (Groundhog's Day), when I plan to discuss Phil's forecast for the rest of winter. I'll throw in my two cents worth, too.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting Floodman:


In the last 15 more and more fishing caps have been put in place allowing for the inscrease in food fish stocks, particularly in the N Atlantic. We still have tremendous "dead zones" around the mouths of rivers, forcing fishermen further out the make their catches; these dead zones and over-fishing are what he was talking about. We are still seing widespread coral bleaching, evidence that something is terribly wrong; without the coral reefs the seas will be dead in realtively short order. Like a man with a heart condition, just because the patient looks good now doesn't mean he won't be dead tomorrow


Well said Flood,
Coral Reefs are super sensitive to temperature changes even slightest degree change can kill coral. I was down in Florida Keys about 2 1/2 months ago and its sad to say the 93% of the coral reefs down there are dead and dieing. It just looked like white stone. No colors at all. The even sader thing is people coming to see the coral reefs in Florida dont realize the charter snorkling boats are ripping them off by taking them to dead reefs. If you look in there hand outs it show pristine reefs.
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Ike, why don't you just make a comment on the blog that you could use some cooler weather??

We'd have a freakin Ice Age!
Member Since: August 14, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 533
Quoting largeeyes:
Ah, comeon Ike. That's what the grill and fire place are for. Hunker down with a glass of scotch and wait it out. Oh well.


That is what me and my family along with my two Boston Terriers will be doing. Have a family member that is with the Lee County Emergency office here in Sanford NC. He told us that the info that his office had received was that we was going to get "slammed". I just dread losing the power.
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Quoting AwakeInMaryland:
Yeppers, thanks, T-dude, like I need reminding!

SNOOOOOOOOW -- dryer's broken...snow shovel is broken...

But there's HAND-DIPPED CHOCOLATES on NRAamy's blog for Portlight auction...

Pretend Conversation w/Hubby: "Oh, Honey...you know, Valentine's Day is coming up, and not only would you make ME very happy, you would also score some good karma."

Pretend Response from Hubby: "But dear, I care about your health, and that's why I'm buying more fresh vegetables."

Me, again: "Oh, *$#@-!%&* (censored)."


Dip your vegetables in chocloate fondue; trendy and tasty!
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AIM - LOL
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Excellent post, Dr. M.

I knew that storms that have strong buoyancy up to the tropopause put some of the water vapor up there, but I hadn't realized the change in those along with the cold point was that distinct since 2000.

This (following) paragraph of yours is where I am. A lot we are figuring out, but most of what we do figure out creates at least one question, if not more, that we haven't the data to answer effectively.

"If global warming has triggered the decrease in stratospheric water vapor seen since 2000, it could mean that the climate models have predicted too much global warming, since they don't predict that such a negative feedback exists. On the other hand, if this is a natural cycle, we can expect the recent flattening in global temperatures to average out in the long run, with a return to steeper increases in temperature in the coming decades. Climate models currently do a poor job modeling the complex dynamics of water vapor in the stratosphere, and are not much help figuring out what's going on. Complicating the issue is the fact that about 15% of all thunderstorms capable of delivering water vapor into the stratosphere are generated by tropical cyclones (Rosenlof and Reid, 2008), and tropical cyclones are not well-treated by climate models. We also have to factor in the impact of stratospheric ozone loss, which acts to cool the lower stratosphere. This effect should gradually decrease in future decades as CFC levels decline, though. The stratosphere is a devilishly complicated place that can have a significant impact on global climate change, and we are many years from understanding what is going on there."

Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
46

LOL thats funny
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
Yeppers, thanks, T-dude, like I need reminding!

SNOOOOOOOOW -- dryer's broken...snow shovel is broken...

But there's HAND-DIPPED CHOCOLATES on NRAamy's blog for Portlight auction...

Pretend Conversation w/Hubby: "Oh, Honey...you know, Valentine's Day is coming up, and not only would you make ME very happy, you would also score some good karma."

Pretend Response from Hubby: "But dear, I care about your health, and that's why I'm buying more fresh vegetables."

Me, again: "Oh, *$#@-!%&* (censored)."
Member Since: August 19, 2008 Posts: 32 Comments: 1918
Ah, comeon Ike. That's what the grill and fire place are for. Hunker down with a glass of scotch and wait it out. Oh well.
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Quoting MILLERTIME1:
Is Al Gore really Osama Bin Laden?


; )
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
Quoting weatherneophyte:
As the AGW debate slowly dies from it's own weight and scandals, some continue to argue that it is a proven scientific fact. "...we have very high uncertainty on how much sea level rise to expect this century". Yet, we are supposed to alter aur way of life, drive toy cars, pay exorbitant taxes to pay for things such as cap and trade. All because we have very high uncertainty on how much sea levels will rise. I remember Ted Danson telling us at least 15 years ago that the seas would be dead in 10 years. Seems that there was a "very high uncertainty" about that "fact" too.


In the last 15 more and more fishing caps have been put in place allowing for the increase in food fish stocks, particularly in the N Atlantic. We still have tremendous "dead zones" around the mouths of rivers, forcing fishermen further out the make their catches; these dead zones and over-fishing are what he was talking about. We are still seing widespread coral bleaching, evidence that something is terribly wrong; without the coral reefs the seas will be dead in relatively short order. Like a man with a heart condition, just because the patient looks good now doesn't mean he won't be dead tomorrow
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Afternon Folks...No GW comments from from me :)..Just reminding any WU Bloggers from North Florida, one last time, that tommorow is the 2nd Annual WeatherFest event at the Tallhassee NWS Offices on the Campus of Florida State from 9:00 to 5:00. Good weather fun and events for the whole family. Part of the events (see below) include a simulated watch/warning excercise with the NWS mets and how they do it. Depending on the timing of the frontal passage tommorow through the Panhandle/Big Bend, the simulation may turn into a real time exercise, but, at least the possibility of severe weather frm the front is low at this time per SPC. Hope to see some of you folks there tommorow:

After a very successful event in 2009, WeatherFest will be returning on
January 30, 2010.

WeatherFest is an outreach event developed by the National Weather Service office in Tallahassee and organized in partnership with the Florida State University Meteorology Department, the North Florida Chapter of the American Meteorology Society, and state and university emergency management officials. This annual event is intended for weather enthusiasts of all ages and brings together meteorology professionals from the federal and state government, academia, the media, and various partner organizations, to increase awareness about how forecasts and warnings are produced and disseminated, how meteorologists are trained, and the science of meteorology in general.

WeatherFest 2010 will be part of Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Week, and will feature many of the events from the inaugural WeatherFest last January, with some new and exciting exhibits in store as well. Food and drinks will be available for purchase. If you didn't visit us last year, or missed the severe weather simulation or weather balloon launches, stop by and visit us this year! If you are curious about our 2009 event, check out the photo gallary provided by our photographer, Bob Duggan. We hope that you will plan to make WeatherFest 2010 part of your winter plans.
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 9211
Gasparilla will go on as planned... I certainly would NOT want to be in a boat with those choppy waters.

Link
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Quoting IKE:


You better be thanking your lucky stars. Look what the folks in Oklahoma are going through with no electricity.

I'm glad I live in Florida.



Me too. I can put up with hurricanes.
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38. IKE
Quoting largeeyes:
Live in the one part of NC that's not going to get much of nothin. This sucks.


You better be thanking your lucky stars. Look what the folks in Oklahoma are going through with no electricity.

I'm glad I live in Florida.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
Live in the one part of NC that's not going to get much of nothin. This sucks.
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Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
Hmmm, Groundhog's Day...note to self -- better to be in hole with Groundhog than to mess with scientists and "other" bloggers "discussing" CC/AGW.

Caught this entry on NRAamy's blog -- it is so good of her to manage the Portlight Auction House!

I canNOT wait to see the pics for this item get posted -- what a TRIP!!

86. NRAamy 3:45 AM GMT on January 29, 2010
Press....if you think this is cool, just wait til you see the baby miniature donkey I've got waiting to go up on the auction block....now THAT'S gonna be cool!!!!!!!!
Member Since: August 19, 2008 Posts: 32 Comments: 1918
Quoting StormChaser81:


2 millenniums thats a long time, you must be tired. lol. Thats why you need to retire.


Lol yea yea
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Quoting tornadodude:


LOL retire? I just now might have a new job :P


2 millenniums thats a long time, you must be tired. lol. Thats why you need to retire.
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31. IKE
Well written story from CNN about the hotel Montana in Haiti....Link

Global warming again....oh man.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
Quoting tornadodude:


yeah, so parts of NC might get 20 + inches of snow


I have friends in central NC that aren't accustomed to so much snow and they are very excited. I just hope they don't get much ice or they'll be without power for a while. Pine trees and power lines don't go together well.
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Quoting CycloneOz:


Just don't look at your portrait, Dorian... ;)

:D
Quoting StormChaser81:


Man your starting to get ancient. Time to retire. Just Joking.


LOL retire? I just now might have a new job :P
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
Quoting tornadodude:


haha well we could talk about the winter storm?


fun fact:

at 19 years of age, I have lived in 2 millenniums, and three different decades


Man your starting to get ancient. Time to retire. Just Joking.
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Quoting tornadodude:


haha well we could talk about the winter storm?


fun fact:

at 19 years of age, I have lived in 2 millenniums, and three different decades


Just don't look at your portrait, Dorian... ;)

:D
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Quoting CaneWarning:


Yes, the winter storm is going to be brutal for some. I expect a lot of power outages due to ice accumulation.


yeah, so parts of NC might get 20 + inches of snow
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
Quoting tornadodude:


haha well we could talk about the winter storm?


fun fact:

at 19 years of age, I have lived in 2 millenniums, and three different decades


Yes, the winter storm is going to be brutal for some. I expect a lot of power outages due to ice accumulation.
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Quoting CaneWarning:


I'm going to try REALLY hard.


haha well we could talk about the winter storm?


fun fact:

at 19 years of age, I have lived in 2 millenniums, and three different decades
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
Quoting tornadodude:


good decision ;)


I'm going to try REALLY hard.
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Osama Bin Laden is blaming the United States for climate change.

Link
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Quoting CaneWarning:
I must not comment on this topic. :)


good decision ;)
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
As the AGW debate slowly dies from it's own weight and scandals, some continue to argue that it is a proven scientific fact. "...we have very high uncertainty on how much sea level rise to expect this century". Yet, we are supposed to alter aur way of life, drive toy cars, pay exorbitant taxes to pay for things such as cap and trade. All because we have very high uncertainty on how much sea levels will rise. I remember Ted Danson telling us at least 15 years ago that the seas would be dead in 10 years. Seems that there was a "very high uncertainty" about that "fact" too.
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How interesting! My article hooks up with Dr. Master's latest blog nicely. Cool! :)

A Plan and Argument to Modify Earth's Weather
a article by Brian Osburn
prepared especially for WeatherUnderground.com

Native Americans had a dance to create it, and Christians are notorious for praying for it. We've seeded clouds to make it, and there's even a science fair project to fabricate it. Yet even in 2010 when the arrogance of man's control over global climate has pinnacled, we cannot make it rain.

Of course, inclement weather such as rain is tied to a phenomenon in our atmosphere we simply call "a low pressure system." So it stands to reason that if man can create a low pressure system, he will have in fact created rain.

But really, how would one create a low pressure system? What key ingredient(s) would be required and how would one go about introducing the ingredient(s) into the air.

Believe it or not, the answer to this is quite simple. The key ingredient to the formation of low pressure systems is water vapor that works in tandem with air currents.

Okay, so how and where do we create water vapor? The where answer is again easy...the world's oceans. The how answer is the tricky part.

What would you do "vaporize" ocean water? One could have our current President talk underwater for an hour a day or more, that might work. No...seriously...how?

I think I have an answer. It involves high explosives and space-based lasers. Here's how it might work if we needed it to rain in say Southern California:

1) Run models until we can predict that the jet stream will dive down the California coast, much as it is does during a typical El Nino year. We need the models to be accurate 14 days out.

2) Once we have a cooperative jet stream, we evacuate specific areas of the Pacific Ocean where we could undertake the process.

3) Using high explosives, we detonate a vast area (say 20 square miles) of ocean near the surface in exact locations.

4) One at a time, we detonate a batch of ocean water in the area. At the exact instant of the blast, a space based high energy laser which has been targeted to the exact location of the blast is fired. As the water ascends from the explosion, the laser vaporizes all the airborne molecules. This is done in rapid succession...say perhaps two thousand explosions with targeted laser fire, all completed within 30 minutes.

The result could well be a low pressure system that gets caught up by the jet stream, continues to organize and gain strength, and brings rain to Southern California in a weeks time.

Now, for the argument.

WTH am I talking about??? Blow up the ocean and boil it as it rises into the air? Do you know what kind of power would be required to do such a thing? How dangerous the work would be? And do we even want to mess with the weather anyway?

What if the storm causes a mudslide and destroys a neighborhood? The people pulling such a stunt could have their butts sued off by trial lawyers!

What if someone slips and falls on the ice the storm deposits in the mountains? Same thing, right?

So does man keep his hands off the weather? Or do we use our technology to make it do what we want it to do, like happens in the 23rd century in "Star Trek?"

Perhaps the primitive methods will always work best for us.

Honey, break out the tom-tom! :)
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Quoting flytyerva55:
Live in east Virginia waiting on the storm to dump some snow. Ironic the Bold Fresh Tour I was going to tomorrow is stopped by cold & snow. Maybe global warming is dead.

Or, you know, maybe it's just winter.

Seriously, you guys are becoming increasingly disgraceful with the sneering contempt you display. If you don't like what Dr. Masters has to say about AGW then perhaps you should take a break in the off season.
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Quite the complex environment we live in. I wonder how the post subject and this item relate, if at all ?

The Ozone Hole Is Mending. Now for the ‘But.’
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Quoting tornadodude:
Alright, update,


Myself and the people I was going to Atlanta with have decided to put off the trip until two weeks from now. There is pretty much no way we are going to be able to drive through Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia with the way this storm is setting up. It would be really risky.


Good decision.
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I must not comment on this topic. :)
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14. JeffMasters (Admin)
Quoting rotarymunkey:
This is my absolute favorite Dr Masters' quote, EVER!

"Climate models currently do a poor job modeling the complex dynamics of water vapor in the stratosphere, and are not much help figuring out what's going on."

And YET... we're supposed to spend billions of dollars fighting AGW? AHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA!

We were also supposed to see a massive increase in AGW-fueled hurricanes too, but evidently from Dr Masters' post, the models don't do a great job with hurricanes either. Is there any point in particular in which the models HAVE been accurate?


The models do an excellent job simulating the impact of volcanic eruptions on climate, such as Mt. Pinatubo's impact on climate in 1991 - 1992. They also do a pretty good job simulating past climates back several hundred million years, with the exception of some "hot house" climates where the poles were very warm. However, the models do a poor job handling how the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will respond to significant warming, and we have very high uncertainty on how much sea level rise to expect this century. We can expect the models to miss many important climate change happenings, both for and against us. For example, no model predicted the record loss of Arctic sea ice in 2007, but no model predicted the slowdown of global warming due to a decrease in stratospheric water vapor. We are forced to make critical decisions regarding our future using tools inadequate for assessing the degree of risk, unfortunately.

Jeff Masters
Another angle (water vapor) give me a break. Your right go walk the dog but didn't I just read something about the damage a dog does to the earth. Live in east Virginia waiting on the storm to dump some snow. Ironic the Bold Fresh Tour I was going to tomorrow is stopped by cold & snow. Maybe global warming is dead.
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Geeesh, GLOBAL WARMING is not going on. When will the so-called WEATHER NERDS going to realize this.
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this is a pretty big storm
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
There has been significant reporting and studies regarding the global average temperature.

I understand that to be the global average DRY BULB temperature at or near the earth's surface.

Is there parallel information available regarding the historical global average WET BULB temperature at or near the earth's surface; a temperature that would give an indication of total heat energy in the atmosphere at or near the earths surface ??
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"My next post will probably be Tuesday (Groundhog's Day), "


The blog has felt like Groundhog's Day lately.

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Quoting Patrap:
Yeah,,science is hard for some to get..especially past their own Bias to the er,subject matter.

Im gonna walk da dog,..and come back later to see the er,.."discussion".

LOL


I totally agree
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
Alright, update,


Myself and the people I was going to Atlanta with have decided to put off the trip until two weeks from now. There is pretty much no way we are going to be able to drive through Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia with the way this storm is setting up. It would be really risky.
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357
Yeah,,science is hard for some to get..especially past their own Bias to the er,subject matter.

Im gonna walk da dog,..and come back later to see the er,.."discussion".

LOL
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and now comes the fun... :p
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8357

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.