Stratospheric water vapor decline credited with slowing global warming

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 6:18 PM GMT on January 29, 2010

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After a steep rise in global average temperatures in the 1990s, the 2000s have seen relatively flat temperatures, despite increasing levels of CO2 emissions by humans. This reduced warming may be partially due to a sharp decrease in stratospheric water vapor that began after 2000, according to research published yesterday in Science by a team of researchers led by Dr. Susan Solomon of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder. Water vapor is a potent greenhouse gas capable of significantly warming the planet, and its potency is much higher when it is located in the lower stratosphere where temperatures are extremely cold. Greenhouse gases located in cold regions of the atmosphere are more effective at heating the planet because they absorb heat radiation from the Earth's relatively warm surface, but then re-emit energy at a much colder temperature, resulting in less heat energy lost to space. Even though stratospheric water vapor can exist at concentrations more than 100 times lower than at the surface, the 10% drop in stratospheric water vapor since 2000 noted by Solomon et al. acted to slow down global warming by 25% between 2000 - 2009, compared to that which would have occurred due only to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.


Figure 1. Stratospheric water vapor in the tropics, between 5°S - 5°N, as measured by the HALOE instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), between 1993 - 2005. The bottom portion of the plot shows the lower stratosphere, just above where tall thunderstorms are able to transport water vapor into the stratosphere. A strong yearly cycle is evident in the water vapor, due to the seasonal variation in heavy thunderstorms over the tropics. Once in the lower stratosphere, the waver vapor takes about 1.2 years to travel to the upper stratosphere, as seen in the bending of the contours to the right with height. Note that beginning in 2001, very low water vapor concentrations less than 2.2 parts per million by volume (ppmv) began appearing in the lower stratosphere, due to substantial cooling. Image credit: Rosenlof, K. H., and G. C. Reid (2008), Trends in the temperature and water vapor content of the tropical lower stratosphere: Sea surface connection, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009109.

The observations
We haven't been able to observe water vapor in the stratosphere very long--accurate global measurements only go back to 1991, when the HALOE instrument aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) began taking data (Figure 1). Stratospheric water vapor showed an increase of about 0.5 parts per million by volume (ppmv) during the 1990s. But after 2000, a sudden drop of 0.4 ppmv was observed, and this decrease has persisted into 2009. To see how these changes impacted the amount of global warming, Solomon et al. fed the observations into a specialized high-resolution model that computed the change in heat from the fluctuating water vapor levels. They found that the increase in stratospheric water vapor in the 1990s led to about a 30% increase in the amount of global warming observed during that decade, and the decrease of 0.4 ppmv since 2000 led to a 25% reduction between 2000 - 2009.

How water vapor gets into the stratosphere
The stratosphere has two main sources of water vapor: transport from the lower atmosphere (the troposphere) via tall thunderstorms, and the chemical breakdown of methane gas into water vapor and carbon dioxide. With regard to greenhouse effect warming, transport of water vapor by thunderstorms is the most important source, since this mechanism delivers water vapor to the lowest part of the stratosphere, where temperatures are coldest and greenhouse gases are more effective at warming the climate. There is a limit as to how much water vapor that can enter the stratosphere via thunderstorms, though. Temperature decreases with altitude from the surface to the bottom of the stratosphere, where they begin to rise with height due to the solar energy-absorbing effect of the stratospheric ozone layer. As moisture-laden air rises in thunderstorms towards the lower stratosphere, it encounters the atmosphere's "cold point"--the coldest point in the lower atmosphere, at the base of the stratosphere. Since the amount of water vapor that can be present in the atmosphere decreases as the temperature gets colder, and moisture being transported to the stratosphere must traverse through the "cold point" of the atmosphere, the air gets "freeze dried" and loses most of its moisture.


Figure 2. The departure from average of tropopause temperature (dark line) and Sea Surface Temperature (light dashed line) for the tropical Pacific Ocean between 10°S - 10°N, from 1981 - 2007. The tropopause is the bottom boundary of the stratosphere. The SST data is for 139°W - 171°W longitude, and is from the NOAA Optimal Interpolation v2 data set. The tropopause data is from balloon soundings, for the region 171°W - 200°W. The SST is plotted so that the anomalies increase as one looks down. Note that prior to about 2000, tropopause temperatures and SSTs increased and decreased together, but that beginning in 2000 - 2001, a sharp climate shift occurred, and the two quantities became anti-correlated. The sudden drop in tropopause temperature in 2000 - 2001 caused a sharp drop in stratospheric water vapor. Image credit: Rosenlof, K. H., and G. C. Reid (2008), Trends in the temperature and water vapor content of the tropical lower stratosphere: Sea surface connection, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009109.

Why did stratospheric water vapor drop in 2000?
Tall thunderstorms capable of delivering water vapor into the stratosphere occur primarily in the tropics, particularly over the Western Pacific, where a huge warm pool with very high Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exists. In 2000, this region experienced a sharp increase in SST of 0.25°C, which has remained consistent though the 2000s (Figure 2). Coincident with this increase in SST came a sharp drop in the "cold point" temperature of the tropopause--the lower boundary of the stratosphere. This reduction in "cold point" temperature meant that less water vapor could make it into the stratosphere over the Tropical Pacific, since more thunderstorm water was getting "freeze dried" out. Did global warming trigger this increase in Pacific SST, resulting in cooling of the "cold point" and less water vapor in the stratosphere? Or was it random variation due to some decades-long natural cycle? This key question was left unanswered by the Solomon et al. study, and observations of stratospheric water vapor don't go back far enough to offer a reasonable guess. One factor arguing against global warming having triggered a negative feedback of this nature is that prior to 2000, increases in Western Pacific SST caused increases in "cold point" temperatures--behavior opposite of what has been seen since 2000.

If global warming has triggered the decrease in stratospheric water vapor seen since 2000, it could mean that the climate models have predicted too much global warming, since they don't predict that such a negative feedback exists. On the other hand, if this is a natural cycle, we can expect the recent flattening in global temperatures to average out in the long run, with a return to steeper increases in temperature in the coming decades. Climate models currently do a poor job modeling the complex dynamics of water vapor in the stratosphere, and are not much help figuring out what's going on. Complicating the issue is the fact that about 15% of all thunderstorms capable of delivering water vapor into the stratosphere are generated by tropical cyclones (Rosenlof and Reid, 2008), and tropical cyclones are not well-treated by climate models. We also have to factor in the impact of stratospheric ozone loss, which acts to cool the lower stratosphere. This effect should gradually decrease in future decades as CFC levels decline, though. The stratosphere is a devilishly complicated place that can have a significant impact on global climate change, and we are many years from understanding what is going on there.

References
Romps, D.M., and Z. Kuang, "Overshooting convection in tropical cyclones", Geophysical Research Letters, 2009; 36 (9): L09804 DOI: 10.1029/2009GL037396

Rosenlof, K. H., and G. C. Reid (2008), Trends in the temperature and water vapor content of the tropical lower stratosphere: Sea surface connection, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009109.

Portlight Haiti update
Paul Timmons, who directs the Portlight.org disaster-relief charity that has sprung up from the hard work and dedication of many members of the wunderground.com community, was interviewed by NBC yesterday. The reporter doing the story is planning to follow the Portlight-donated goods to Haiti and interview the people with disabilities that receive the donations. It is uncertain when the story will be aired, but I'll try to give everyone a heads-up.

Next post
My next post will probably be Tuesday (Groundhog's Day), when I plan to discuss Phil's forecast for the rest of winter. I'll throw in my two cents worth, too.

Jeff Masters

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P451 can you link those? Not displaying for me.
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The segment will be available as soon as it airs and we can turn it around.


A Longer more focused airing is what were hoping for,sometime next week,and as Dr. Master's relays above,we will let everyone know as soon as we do.

Portlight Haiti update
Paul Timmons, who directs the Portlight.org disaster-relief charity that has sprung up from the hard work and dedication of many members of the wunderground.com community, was interviewed by NBC yesterday. The reporter doing the story is planning to follow the Portlight-donated goods to Haiti and interview the people with disabilities that receive the donations. It is uncertain when the story will be aired, but I'll try to give everyone a heads-up.
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Cost of UK flood protection doubles to £1bn a year

Latest data from the Environment Agency shows that more than half a million UK homes are at 'significant' risk of flooding
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jan/29/cost-of-uk-flood-protection
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
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Quoting P451:


I'm going to watch NBC news tonight. If the Portlight spot comes on I will record it and upload the footage.

"NBC NIGHTLY NEWS" correct?


Meanwhile..


NAM:



GFS:




YEs...unfortunately I am going to the Dr and may not be done in time to heck the news. I will say this though: it looks as though the peice willnot air until late next week as part of a multi-part series tracking a shipment from Atlanta to it's distribution in Haiti
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Quoting Ossqss:
Oz, I have an experimental recycling suit for you to try :)

Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting P451:


I'm going to watch NBC news tonight. If the Portlight spot comes on I will record it and upload the footage.

"NBC NIGHTLY NEWS" correct?


Meanwhile..


NAM:



GFS:




That shows a pretty big difference between the models.
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Quoting PcolaDan:


Are they related to the bankers? ;)


The majority of bankers didn't do anything wrong, but some sure like to play like they did.
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Quoting Orcasystems:
Also in the news :)

Scientists broke the law by hiding climate change data: But legal loophole means they won't be prosecuted




Are they related to the bankers? ;)
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Quoting CaneWarning:


I also saw they created one with old tires. I just don't know about throwing old tires and other metal into the ocean... It seems to me stuff like that shouldn't be there.


I think they are removing the old tire Reefs, looks as if that was a super bad ideal!
To remove them all will take a few years!
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Quoting P451:


I, sir, will follow in your footsteps. I've said what I have had to say on past blogs. Nothing more can come of it.

Of note is Dr. M did reply to my mail, something I suggested I would do in the last blog (the graph of where you stand on AGW), but said he has already done such a poll, so he probably wouldn't do it again, because it wouldn't serve much purpose.

Of further note is this insane arctic outbreak that has squashed the snow storm down in to Virginia/NC now. That stinks. I wanted another blizzard. NJ will have to wait.





Me too...I was hoping for snow on my birthday...now it looks to be cold and dry...
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Quoting Ossqss:
Oz, I have an experimental recycling suit for you to try :)


that could be good for floating around in a storm surge needs a red flashing light on the top


lol
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I've updated the Portlight website and my blog...go have a look, if you would.

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Up now to 42 in New Bern....looking like a cold rain.
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have a good weekend doc thanks
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84. JeffMasters (Admin)
Quoting JFLORIDA:
Dr M is this correlating with recent sea level rise?


Sea level rise has slowed down to about 2.5 mm/year, down from the 3.1 mm/yr we saw in the 1990s. This is mostly due to the slowdown in thermal expansion of the oceans, since global warming was relatively flat in the 2000s. However, melting from glaciers and the ice caps of Greenland and Antarctica is now thought to be responsible for 80% of the sea level rise, and this ice is melting faster than in the 1990s. Back then, melting ice made up 40% or less of the observed sea level rise.

Jeff Masters
thanks for the update i think

but now we get the global warming blog for the weekend

i think maybe you may be an evil dr bahahahah


lol
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Quoting CycloneOz:
Scientist broke law in hiding "climate change" data...and will not be prosecuted because of a legal loophole!

Some of these stories about GW, CC, & my own personal methane output are getting pretty weird!

Actualy it is irrelevant, because it doesn't change the outcome. And funny nobody question's the legal of the hacked email server. Or the fact that the emails doesn't reveal anything profound.
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Oz, I have an experimental recycling suit for you to try :)


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Quoting Orcasystems:
Also in the news :)

Scientists broke the law by hiding climate change data: But legal loophole means they won't be prosecuted




I feel like I saw that article posted before...
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alright, I'll catch you all later, off to shoot some hoops
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8360
Quoting CycloneOz:
Scientist broke law in hiding "climate change" data...and will not be prosecuted because of a legal loophole!

Some of these stories about GW, CC, & my own personal methane output are getting pretty weird!


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Quoting Floodman:


Dip your vegetables in chocloate fondue; trendy and tasty!


Now that's why I call you my brother and friend!!!
Member Since: August 19, 2008 Posts: 32 Comments: 1918
Quoting CaneWarning:


I also saw they created one with old tires. I just don't know about throwing old tires and other metal into the ocean... It seems to me stuff like that shouldn't be there.


Once the barnicles start growing you wont recognize them in two weeks.
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Quoting CaneWarning:


I always wonder about the reefs that we create. Didn't we just sink a naval ship of some sort off the coast of Florida not too long ago to create a reef? Do those survive better than natural reefs? I saw something on tv that the newly created reef was thriving.


it takes awhile for the corals to start building on the concrete and metals. They do pretty good, but you only get certain types of corals. There not like natural reefs, but it does bring fish from all over to these structures.
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70. IKE
Quoting BobinTampa:
Ike, why don't you just make a comment on the blog that you could use some cooler weather??

We'd have a freakin Ice Age!


Then no global warming blogs....WOOHOO!
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Quoting StormChaser81:


Tanks, Ships, old drug running planes, cars, but mostly huge triangle looking concrete structures.


I also saw they created one with old tires. I just don't know about throwing old tires and other metal into the ocean... It seems to me stuff like that shouldn't be there.
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Repost from last blog.
Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:
Coral Reef
Often called “rainforests of the sea”, coral reefs form some of the richest and most diverse ecosystems on earth. They occupy less than one percent of the world ocean surface, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for 25% of all marine species, including fishes, molluscs, echinoderms and sponges.[1]

Paradoxically, coral reefs flourish even though they are surrounded by ocean waters that provide few nutrients. They are most commonly found at shallow depths in tropical waters, particularly in the Pacific Ocean, but deep water and cold water corals exist on a much smaller scale.

Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services to tourism, fisheries and shoreline protection. The annual global economic value of coral reefs has been estimated at $30 billion. However, coral reefs are fragile ecosystems, partly because they are very sensitive to water temperature. They are under threat from climate change, ocean acidification, blast fishing, cyanide fishing for aquarium fish, overuse of reef resources, and harmful land-use practices. High nutrient levels such as those found in runoff from agricultural areas can harm reefs by encouraging excess algae growth.

Most coral reefs were formed after the last glacial period when melting ice caused the sea level to rise and flood the continental shelves. This means that most coral reefs are less than 10,000 years old. As coral reef communities were established on the shelves, they built reefs that grew upwards, keeping pace with the rise in sea level. Reefs that didn't keep pace could become drowned reefs, covered by so much water that there was insufficient light for further survival.[3]

Coral reefs are also found in the deep sea away from the continental shelves, around oceanic islands and as atolls. The vast majority of these ocean coral islands are volcanic in origin. The few exceptions have tectonic origins where plate movements have lifted the deep ocean floor on the surface.

In 1842 Charles Darwin published his first monograph, The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs.[4] There he set out his theory of the formation of atoll reefs, an idea he conceived during the voyage of the Beagle. His theory was that atolls were formed by the uplift and subsidence of the earth's crust under the oceans.[5] Darwin’s theory sets out a sequence of three stages in atoll formation. It starts with a fringing reef forming around an extinct volcanic island as the island and ocean floor subsides. As the subsidence continues, the fringing reef becomes a barrier reef, and ultimately an atoll reef.

As an example of how coral reefs have formed on continental shelves, the current living reef structure of the Great Barrier Reef began growing about 20,000 years ago. The sea level was then 120 metres (390 ft) lower than it is today.[8][9] As the sea level rose, the water and the corals encroached on what had been the hills of the coastal plain. By 13,000 years ago the sea level was 60 metres (200 ft) lower than at present, and the hills of the coastal plains were, by then, continental islands. As the sea level rise continued most of the continental islands were submerged. The corals could then overgrow the hills, forming the present cays and reefs. The sea level on the Great Barrier Reef has not changed significantly in the last 6,000 years,[9] and the age of the present living reef structure is estimated to be between 6,000 and 8,000 years.[10] Although the Great Barrier Reef formed along a continental shelf, and not around a volcanic island, the same principles apply as outlined by Darwin's theory above. The Great Barrier Reef development has stopped at the barrier reef stage, since Australia is not about to submerge. It has formed the world's largest barrier reef, 300–1000 metres (330-1100 yards) from shore, and 2000 kilometres (1200 miles) long.[11]

Healthy coral reefs grow horizontally from 1 to 3 centimetres (0.39 to 1.2 in) per year, and grow vertically anywhere from 1 to 25 centimetres (0.4–12 in) per year; however, they are limited to growing above a depth of 150 metres (490 ft) due to their need for sunlight, and cannot grow above sea level.


Locations



This map shows areas of upwelling in red. Coral reefs are not found in coastal areas where colder and nutrient rich upwellings occur

Darwin's Paradox
During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin described tropical coral reefs as oases in the desert of the ocean. He reflected on the paradox that tropical coral reefs, which are among the richest and most diverse ecosystems on earth, flourish when they are surrounded and supported by tropical ocean waters that provide hardly any nutrients. It has been a challenge for scientists to explain this paradox.

Coral reefs cover just under one percent of the surface of the world’s ocean, yet they support over one-fourth of all marine species. This huge number of species results in complex food webs, with large predator fish eating smaller forage fish that eat yet smaller zooplankton and so on. However, all food webs eventually depend on plants, which are the primary producers. And the primary productivity on a coral reef is very high, resulting in a typical biomass production of 5-10g C m−2 day−1.[25]

Tropical waters are often described as crystal clear. This is because they are deficient in nutrients and drifting plankton. The sun shines year round in the tropics, warming the surface ocean layer so it is less dense than subsurface layers. The warmer water is separated from the cooler water by a stable thermocline, where the temperature makes a rapid change. This keeps the warm surface waters floating above the cooler deeper waters. There is little exchange between these layers. Organisms that die in aquatic environments generally sink to the bottom where they decompose. This decomposition releases nutrients in the form of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. These nutrients, N, P and K, are necessary for plant growth, but in the tropics they are not directly recycled back to the surface.[7]

Plants are the base of the food chain, and need sunlight and nutrients if they are to grow. In the ocean these plants are mainly a type of plankton, microscopic phytoplankton which drift in the water column. They need sunlight for photosynthesis, which powers carbon fixation, so they are found only in the surface waters. But they also need nutrients. Phytoplankton rapidly use any nutrients in the surface waters, and in the tropics these nutrients are not usually replaced because of the thermocline.[7]

Climate Change
Any rise in the sea level due to climate change would effectively ask coral to grow faster to keep up. Also, water temperature changes can be very disturbing to the coral. This was seen during the 1998 and 2004 El Niño weather phenomena, in which sea surface temperatures rose well above normal, bleaching or killing many coral reefs. High seas surface temperature (SSTs) coupled with high irradiance (light intensity), triggers the loss of zooxanthellae, a symbiotic algae, and its dinoflagellate pigmentation in corals causing coral bleaching. Zooxanthellae provides up to 90% of the energy to the coral host. Reefs can often recover from bleaching if they are healthy to begin with and water temperatures cool. However, recovery may not be possible if CO2 levels rise to 500 ppm because there may not be enough carbonate ions present.[61] Refer to Hoegh-Guldberg 1999 for more information.

Warming may also be the basis of a new emerging problem: increasing coral diseases. Warming, thought to be the main cause of coral bleaching, weakens corals. In their weakened state, coral is much more prone to diseases including black band disease, white band disease and skeletal eroding band. If global temperatures increase by 2 °C, coral may not be able to adapt quickly enough physiologically or genetically.[62] It has been estimated that, in order to counter the threat of ocean acidification through global warming, a reduction of up to 40% of current emissions is needed, and up to 95% by 2050. This requires emission reductions larger than the reductions currently proposed for these dates by the EU
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coral_reef
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting Ossqss:
It's in the news ...

Cold snap killed Florida coral, according to an analysis this week by Nature Conservancy scientists.


"This is the first time since January 1977 that a cold-water bleaching and die-off has occurred in south Florida, according to the conservancy. That was the winter that snow was reported in Miami for the only time in its history."



That cold snap caused by global warming caused a ton of problems in Florida. Many bodies of water around here have tons of dead fish in them caused by the cold snap. Most grass is dead along with many plants.
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Quoting CaneWarning:


I always wonder about the reefs that we create. Didn't we just sink a naval ship of some sort off the coast of Florida not too long ago to create a reef? Do those survive better than natural reefs? I saw something on tv that the newly created reef was thriving.


Tanks, Ships, old drug running planes, cars, but mostly huge triangle looking concrete structures.
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Quoting Floodman:


The actions of man (boats, pollution, dredging, etc), an increase in mean SSTs and rapid cahnges in salinity of the water all contribute, along with a huge number of other factors...the issue is that the reefs did well until about the last half of the last century...


I really think that storm water run off needs to be looked into heavily. I know in Tampa that whatever runs into the drains on the streets typically ends up in the bay. People need to think about that before they litter and throw out their cig. butts, etc. All of that pollution, not to mention chemicals and fertilizers end up in the bay.
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Quoting Floodman:


The actions of man (boats, pollution, dredging, etc), an increase in mean SSTs and rapid cahnges in salinity of the water all contribute, along with a huge number of other factors...the issue is that the reefs did well until about the last half of the last century...


Oops forgot salinity, When the Everglades was basically dammed it didnt allow much water to flow into Florida Bay. So the waters no are super salty most of the time. This also affects the reefs downstream from Florida Bay.
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It's in the news ...

Cold snap killed Florida coral, according to an analysis this week by Nature Conservancy scientists.


"This is the first time since January 1977 that a cold-water bleaching and die-off has occurred in south Florida, according to the conservancy. That was the winter that snow was reported in Miami for the only time in its history."

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Quoting StormChaser81:


Water Temperature and pollution are some of the main factors. There is also the saharan dust that comes from Africa during the summer months carries Bacteria that has been causing widespread bleaching.


I always wonder about the reefs that we create. Didn't we just sink a naval ship of some sort off the coast of Florida not too long ago to create a reef? Do those survive better than natural reefs? I saw something on tv that the newly created reef was thriving.
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Quoting atmoaggie:
Excellent post, Dr. M.
.
"


Agrred. But please be aware that if a sudden shift occured in favor for a lesser degree of warmth. Than it means it will also tend to shift in the opposit direction!
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting CaneWarning:
Aren't coral reefs dying just as much because of water pollution, dedging, etc?


The actions of man (boats, pollution, dredging, etc), an increase in mean SSTs and rapid cahnges in salinity of the water all contribute, along with a huge number of other factors...the issue is that the reefs did well until about the last half of the last century...
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Quoting CaneWarning:
Aren't coral reefs dying just as much because of water pollution, dedging, etc?


Water Temperature and pollution are some of the main factors. There is also the saharan dust that comes from Africa during the summer months carries Bacteria that has been causing widespread bleaching.
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Weather In Haiti
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Quoting AwakeInMaryland:


Glad YOU think so (SOB)!

Hope you'll clue your fraternity brothers onto blog when some pretty items, come up for auction, good for girlfriends, moms, and fraternity sisters!


I'll definitely mention it! I just cant see too many of them coming onto a weather blog for an auction :P
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8360
Aren't coral reefs dying just as much because of water pollution, dedging, etc?
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Quoting tornadodude:
46

LOL thats funny


Glad YOU think so (SOB)!

Hope you'll clue your fraternity brothers onto blog when some pretty items, come up for auction, good for girlfriends, moms, and fraternity sisters!
Member Since: August 19, 2008 Posts: 32 Comments: 1918
Quoting rotarymunkey:
This is my absolute favorite Dr Masters' quote, EVER!

"Climate models currently do a poor job modeling the complex dynamics of water vapor in the stratosphere, and are not much help figuring out what's going on."

And YET... we're supposed to spend billions of dollars fighting AGW? AHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA!

We were also supposed to see a massive increase in AGW-fueled hurricanes too, but evidently from Dr Masters' post, the models don't do a great job with hurricanes either. Is there any point in particular in which the models HAVE been accurate?
Well as he mentioned also it is likly part of a natural cycle. And beside a LOW sun activity AND beside a LOW water vapor present - we have still an alarming accelerating global warming. Because all the data current observed - is just from this "Lesser" observed trend. Pretty scary if you ask me.

Earth is not a machine, where you push a button to change a state.
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting Floodman:


In the last 15 more and more fishing caps have been put in place allowing for the inscrease in food fish stocks, particularly in the N Atlantic. We still have tremendous "dead zones" around the mouths of rivers, forcing fishermen further out the make their catches; these dead zones and over-fishing are what he was talking about. We are still seing widespread coral bleaching, evidence that something is terribly wrong; without the coral reefs the seas will be dead in realtively short order. Like a man with a heart condition, just because the patient looks good now doesn't mean he won't be dead tomorrow


Well said Flood,
Coral Reefs are super sensitive to temperature changes even slightest degree change can kill coral. I was down in Florida Keys about 2 1/2 months ago and its sad to say the 93% of the coral reefs down there are dead and dieing. It just looked like white stone. No colors at all. The even sader thing is people coming to see the coral reefs in Florida dont realize the charter snorkling boats are ripping them off by taking them to dead reefs. If you look in there hand outs it show pristine reefs.
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