Poorly sited U.S. temperature instruments not responsible for artificial warming

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 5:57 PM GMT on January 25, 2010

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Former TV weatherman Anthony Watts, who runs the popular global warming contrarian website, "Watts Up With That", was convinced that many of the U.S. network of surface weather stations had serious flaws in their siting that was causing an artificial warm bias in the observed increase in U.S. temperatures of 1.1°F over the past century. To address this concern, Watts established the website surfacestations.org in 2007, which enlisted an army of volunteers to travel the U.S. to obtain photographic evidence of poor siting of weather stations. The goal was to document cases where "microclimate" influence was important, and could be contaminating temperature measurements. (Note that this is a separate issue from the Urban Heat Island, the phenomenon where a metropolitan area in general is warmer than surrounding rural areas). Watts' volunteers--650 strong--documented the siting of 865 of the 1,218 stations used in the National Climatic Data Center's U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) for tracking climate change. As reported in Watt's 2009 publication put out by the Heartland Institute, the volunteers "found stations located next to the exhaust fans of air conditioning units, surrounded by asphalt parking lots and roads, on blistering-hot rooftops, and near sidewalks and buildings that absorb and radiate heat." Watts surmised that these poorly-sited stations were responsible for much of the increase in U.S. temperatures over the past century, due to "a bias trend that likely results from the thermometers being closer to buildings, asphalt, etc." Watts concluded, "the U.S. temperature record is unreliable. And since the U.S. record is thought to be the best in the world, it follows that the global database is likely similarly compromised and unreliable".


Figure 1. A poorly sited temperature sensor in Marysville, California, used for the USHCN. The sensor is situation right next to an asphalt parking lot, instead in the middle of a grassy field, as it is supposed to be. The sensor is also adjacent to several several air conditioners that blow their exhaust into the air nearby. Image credit: surfacestation.org.

Analysis of the data disagrees with Watts' conclusion
While Watts' publication by the Heartland Institute is a valuable source of information on siting problems of the U.S. network of weather stations, the publication did not undergo peer-review--the process whereby three anonymous scientists who are experts in the field review a manuscript submitted for publication, and offer criticisms on the scientific validity of the results, resulting in revisions to the original paper or outright rejection. The Heartland Institute is an advocacy organization that accepts money from corporate benefactors such as the tobacco industry and fossil fuel industry, and publishes non-peer reviewed science that inevitably supports the interests of the groups paying for the studies. Watts did not actually analyze the data to see if taking out the poorly sited surface stations would have a significant impact on the observed 1.1°F increase in U.S. temperatures over the past century. His study would never have been publishable in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.


Figure 2. Annual average maximum and minimum unadjusted temperature change calculated using (c) maximum and (d) minimum temperatures from good and poor exposure sites (Menne 2010). Poor sites showed a cooler maximum temperature compared to good sites. For minimum temperature, the poor sites were slightly warmer. The net effect was a cool bias in poorly sited stations. The dashed lines are for stations ranked by NOAA, while the solid lines are for the stations ranked by surfacestations.org.

Fortunately, a proper analysis of the impact of these poorly-sited surface stations on the U.S. historical temperature record has now been done by Dr. Matthew Menne and co-authors at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). In a talk at last week's 90th Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Society, Dr. Menne reported the results of their new paper just accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research titled, On the reliability of the U.S. Surface Temperature Record. Dr. Menne's study split the U.S. surface stations into two categories: good (rating 1 or 2) and bad (ratings 3, 4 or 5). They performed the analysis using both the rating provided by surfacestations.org, and from an independent rating provided by NOAA personnel. In general, the NOAA-provided ratings coincided with the ratings given by surfacestations.org. Of the NOAA-rated stations, only 71 stations fell into the "good" siting category, while 454 fell into the "bad" category. According to the authors, though, "the sites with good exposure, though small in number, are reasonably well distributed across the country and, as shown by Vose and Menne [2004], are of sufficient density to obtain a robust estimate of the CONUS average". Dr. Menne's study computed the average daily minimum and maximum temperatures from the good sites and poor sites. The results were surprising. While the poor sites had a slightly warmer average minimum temperature than the good sites (by 0.03°C), the average maximum temperature measured at the poor sites was significantly cooler (by 0.14°C) than the good sites. As a result, overall average temperatures measured at the poor sites were cooler than the good sites. This is the opposite of the conclusion reached by Anthony Watts in his 2009 Heartland Institute publication.

Why did the poorly sited stations measure cooler temperatures?
The reason why the poorly-sites stations measured cooler temperatures lies in the predominant types of thermometers used at the two types of sites. An electronic Maximum/Minimum Temperature System (MMTS) is used at 75% of the poor sites. These MMTS sensors are attached by cable to an indoor readout device, and are consequently limited by cable length as to how far they can be sited from the building housing the indoor readout device. As a result, they are often located close to heated buildings, paved surfaces, air conditioner exhausts, etc. It turns out that these MMTS thermometers have a flaw that causes them to measure minimum temperatures that are slightly too warm, and maximum temperatures that are considerably too cool, leading to an overall cool bias in measured average temperatures. In contrast, only 30% of the "good" sites used the MMTS sensors. The "good" sites predominantly used Liquid in Glass (LiG) thermometers housed in wooden shelters that were more easily located further from the buildings where the observers worked. Since the poorly-sites stations were dominantly equipped with MMTS thermometers, they tended to measure temperatures that were too cool, despite their poor siting.


Figure 3. Comparison of U.S. average annual (a) maximum and (b) minimum temperatures calculated using USHCN version 2 temperatures. Temperatures were adjusted to correct for changes in instrumentation, station relocations, and changes in the time of observation, making the trend from good sites show close agreement with poor sites. Good and poor site ratings are based on surfacestations.org. For comparison, the data between 2004 - 2008 taken by the new high-quality U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN, black dashed line) is shown, and displays excellent agreement for that time period. Image credit: Menne 2010.

Independent verification of recent USHCN annual temperatures
Clearly, the siting of many of the surface stations used to track climate change in the U.S. is not good. To address this issue, in 2004 NOAA created the U.S. Climate Reference Network, a collection of 114 stations in the continental United States for the express purpose of detecting the national signal of climate change. The stations were sited and instrumented with climate studies in mind, and can provide an extremely high-quality independent check on the old USHCN network. Each of 114 stations at 107 locations (some stations were installed as nearby pairs) is equipped with very accurate instruments in a triplicate configuration so that each measurement can be checked for internal consistency. As shown in Figure 3, the USCRN air temperature departures for 2004 - 2008 are extremely well aligned with those derived from the USHCN version 2 temperature data. For these five years, the the difference between the mean annual temperatures measured by the old USHCN compared to the new USCRN was just 0.03°C, with a mathematical correlation coefficient (r-squared) of 0.997. Menne et al. concluded, "This finding provides independent verification that the USHCN version 2 data are consistent with research-quality measurements taken at pristine locations and do not contain spurious trends during the recent past even if sampled exclusively at poorly sited stations. While admittedly this period of coincident observations between the networks is rather brief, the value of the USCRN as a benchmark for reducing the uncertainty of historic observations from the USHCN and other networks will only increase with time". The authors finally concluded, "we find no evidence that the CONUS temperature trends are inflated due to poor siting".

Crediting Anthony Watts
The surfacestations.org effort coordinated by Anthony Watts has made a valuable contribution to science, helping us better understand the nature of the errors in the U.S. historical temperature data set. In his talk last week at the AMS conference, and in the credits of his paper, Dr. Menne had some genuinely grateful comments on the efforts of Anthony Watts and the volunteers of surfacestations.org. However, as of this writing, Watts has made no mention on surfacestations.org or on wattsupwiththat.com of Dr. Menne's study.

I'll have a new post Wednesday or Thursday.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting P451:


Because those playing them huddled around a radio as teenagers after dinner with their folks listening to those songs are first released singles?

*runs*


You better run, whippersnapper!
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
Quoting Orcasystems:


I hate that smell... thats the smell you get when a small problem... becomes a BIG problem.


Especially in the server room...LOL
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
Yep, eyes, I'm still looking in from time to time
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
Quoting CatchMeifUCan:
Poorly sited U.S. temperature instruments





Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CatchMeifUCan:
Poorly sited U.S. temperature instruments




Love it.
Member Since: April 26, 2009 Posts: 3 Comments: 3667
Quoting JFLORIDA:

Ill have to pull the article from the wiki:

Shakhova et al. (2008) estimate that not less than 1,400 Gt of carbon is presently locked up as methane and methane hydrates under the Arctic submarine permafrost, and 5-10% of that area is subject to puncturing by open taliks. They conclude that "release of up to 50 Gt of predicted amount of hydrate storage [is] highly possible for abrupt release at any time".

Thanks for the link. I guess partially, at least its still being considered.

Yes ...


Arctic permafrost leaking methane at record levels, figures show

Experts say methane emissions from the Arctic have risen by almost one-third in just five years, and that sharply rising temperatures are to blame

http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jan/14/arctic-permafrost-methane


Last night i thought about the current NAO anomaly and it could function as somekind of reaction from the earth climate system to prevent tipping points.
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting JFLORIDA:
Up to very recently I thought Greenhouse gasses trap heat - like a greenhouse. Thats completely incorrect. They absorb and re-radiate in a complex mechanism of atmospheric chemistry.

Its actually rather elegant and not as simplistic as general gas chemistry and physics would have you to believe.

I believe I have also seen discussions about the exhaust of natural gas being much worse on the atmosphere than originaly thought to be also.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
748. P451 7:25 PM GMT on January 26, 2010

Quoting watchingnva:
im in virginia...and there's talk of possibly 4+inches on Friday/Saturday...and have some in laws taking 64 west from virginia that day...can i get a link to an updating snowfall forecast map...thanks in advance...

Yes, you may, but due to major flip flopping of the models (by as much as 200 miles) in run to run I would NOT take any of this as a trustworthy forecast. Tune in Thursday AM to see what is really ongoing - IMO - to get a grasp at the truth of this upcoming system.

IMO, models are having a hard time initializing a system - that hasn't even formed yet. So until it forms, they can't initialize properly, and therefore can't give a solid snowfall forecast.

With that:

Earls Model Page

GFS 120 HR Snowfall (click on your radar station)

NAM 84 HR Snowfall (same) - won't have the event properly totaled yet as we're not in that time frame.

750. usa777 7:25 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
It looks like us in the Mid-Atl might get a good snow this weekend. Any of our crack forecasters here have any predictions yet?

Hey, bro' in Annapolis...I know we have to get a visa/or passport to cross the river into VA (they wish, lol), but you might want to check out P451's links (thank you, P451).

Quoting CaneWarning:


Why does everyone always play oldies?


The rest of you can speak for yourselves...I'm older than the lot of you...and I asked for and got FOO FIGHTERS Greatest for the holidays.

I don't think they qualify for the "Oldies" stations, yet.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
There are even great opportunities for the oil and gas industries here.

Capturing Methane Cost-Effective

Since methane is the main ingredient of natural gas, efforts to capture it can actually pay for themselves. You use the gas for energy. And Shindell says there are other benefits of controlling methane. Methane contributes to ozone, which costs society real money because of its human health effects, and ozone also damages crops.

"So if you account for all the economics, all the gains that you get through the benefits of controlling methane that aren't even related to climate, you find that many of the reductions you could make actually pay for themselves," Shindell says.
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122638800
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting Patrap:
Yeah,,we heard dat yesterday Jeff.


One thing about a wet field,..both teams have to Play on it..

And when is Fla ever gonna Build a Stadium with AC,we've had one for 35 years.




The Florida Marlins are building one right now.
And if its anything Dolphin Stadium is getting a covering over the seating area, the playing surface will still be uncovered.
Member Since: September 6, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 3759
Quoting Floodman:


Yeah, man...sparks, smoke and the smell of burning bakelite!


I hate that smell... thats the smell you get when a small problem... becomes a BIG problem.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting JFLORIDA:
Methane is a big question. It something like 20 times more powerful than CO2 as a warming gas.

It leveled off to a time corresponding to the break up of the old soviet union but has since come back with a vengeance.

There is talk of bubbling in the Arctic but I haven't seen where it is because of more being released or because people are noticing it now. Certainly in places uncovered by ice its probably new. Esp if due to recent decomposition of previously frozen organic matter.

This scenario (an explanation for the PETM event) here presents a grim future for the planet, let alone the power to sustain human life.

The clathrate gun hypothesis is the popular name given to the hypothesis that rises in sea temperatures (and/or falls in sea level) can trigger the sudden release of methane from methane clathrate compounds buried in seabeds and permafrost which, because the methane itself is a powerful greenhouse gas, leads to further temperature rise and further methane clathrate destabilization – in effect initiating a runaway process, as irreversible once started as the firing of a gun.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clathrate_gun
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting Floodman:


Yeah, man...sparks, smoke and the smell of burning bakelite!


Woah... now, that's a trip!

Yeah, my wife beats on me constantly... some of my 'newer' music was actually released in 1993....
Member Since: June 20, 2005 Posts: 22 Comments: 1054
Quoting Floodman:


Yeah, man...sparks, smoke and the smell of burning bakelite!
Flood you still on here?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Methane Causes Vicious Cycle In Global Warming
Carbon dioxide is the gas we most associate with global warming, but methane gas also plays an important role. For reasons that are not well understood, methane gas stopped increasing in the atmosphere in the 1990s. But now it appears to be once again on the rise. Scientists are trying to understand why — and what to do about it.

Methane gas comes from all sorts of sources including wetlands, rice paddies, cow tummies, coal mines, garbage dumps and even termites. Drew Shindell, at NASA's Goddard Institute in New York, says, "It's gone up by 150 percent since the pre-industrial period. So that's an enormous increase. CO2, by contrast, has gone up by something like 30 percent."

Molecule for molecule, methane is much more effective than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the atmosphere. And that's just part of the trouble.

"Methane is much more complicated once it gets into the atmosphere than something like carbon dioxide is," Shindell says, "and that's because it reacts with a lot of different important chemicals."

Bad For Climate And Health

For example, methane in the atmosphere also creates ground-level ozone. And ozone isn't only bad for human health; it also contributes to global warming. Shindell recently totaled up all the effects of methane emissions and realized that the heating effect is more than 60 percent that of carbon dioxide's.

"So that tells you that methane is a pretty big player."

Methane in the atmosphere leveled off in the 1990s, so it seemed that efforts to control industrial emissions were keeping this problem gas in check. But since 2007, methane levels have been on the rise again.

Wetlands Cause Vicious Cycle

A study published last week in Science magazine suggests that at least part of this increase is coming from the vast wetlands in Canada, Russia and the Arctic. The methane in wetlands comes from naturally occurring bacteria. But study author Paul Palmer at the University of Edinburgh says the bacteria are producing more methane because the temperature is rising.

"The higher the temperature, the more efficient they are at producing methane," he says. So global warming is causing these wetlands to produce more methane. And the methane is causing more global warming.

"This really does demonstrate the fact that we are having this vicious cycle in the climate system. And we're seeing it now."

It's not yet to the stage where it's a runaway warming effect, Palmer says. But climate scientists are worried that we could hit that tipping point.

There's no obvious way to control methane from natural wetlands other than to keep them from overheating. But at least half of methane emissions are from human activities, ranging from cattle-rearing and natural gas exploration to coal mining.

Global warming is causing these wetlands to produce more methane. And the methane is causing more global warming.


- Paul Palmer, University of Edinburgh

Read the full article
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122638800
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
750. usa777
7:25 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
It looks like us in the Mid-Atl might get a good snow this weekend. Any of our crack forecasters here have any predictions yet?
Member Since: August 11, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 164
749. Floodman
7:25 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting TampaTom:


Something about synapses firing simultaneously.... :-)


Yeah, man...sparks, smoke and the smell of burning bakelite!
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
746. ElConando
7:21 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Dr. Masters scientifically, is Global Warming is a theory?

Member Since: September 6, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 3759
745. watchingnva
7:18 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
im in virginia...and there's talk of possibly 4+inches on Friday/Saturday...and have some in laws taking 64 west from virginia that day...can i get a link to an updating snowfall forecast map...thanks in advance...
Member Since: September 7, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 1516
744. watchingnva
7:16 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
anyone have a 3-5 day snowfall forecast map??
Member Since: September 7, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 1516
743. drg0dOwnCountry
7:16 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting P451:


There is science on both sides of the argument.

That is wrong

Scientific opinion on climate change is given by synthesis reports, scientific bodies of national or international standing, and surveys of opinion among climate scientists. This does not include the views of individual scientists, individual universities, or laboratories, nor self-selected lists of individuals such as petitions.

National and international science academies and scientific societies have assessed the current scientific opinion, in particular on recent global warming. These assessments have largely followed or endorsed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) position of January 2001 that states:

An increasing body of observations gives a collective picture of a warming world and other changes in the climate system... There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.

Since 2007, no scientific body of national or international standing has maintained a dissenting opinion. Some organisations hold non-committal positions.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_consensus_on_climate_change
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
742. tornadodude
7:10 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting hydrus:
Thank You very much T-Dude..


no problem!
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8360
741. hydrus
7:10 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Thank You very much T-Dude..
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21414
740. NEwxguy
7:09 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting Patrap:
Now I better go cuz my Wife is throwing objects at me from her desk..

Owww,dat frigging hurt.


She probably threw her purse at you,considering what they carry in them,that would really hurt,Marine or no Marine.
Member Since: September 6, 2007 Posts: 881 Comments: 15828
739. hydrus
7:08 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting JeffMasters:


If Mr. Watts publishes his reply in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, I'd be happy to feature his work. My goal in this blog is to present information on weather and climate that reflects the best understanding science has on issues that are important to people. I realize that my posts on climate change are upsetting to many, and they would rather see me talk only about weather and storms. That is not going to happen. The latest science on what is happening on climate change is viewed as important by a large number of people, so I will continue reporting on it. I ask those of you who are upset by such posts to please be tolerant of the large number of people on this blog who are interested in reading about the latest science on climate change. For the most part, I think this is happening. I've been very pleased that the blog has gotten less acrimonious on the issue of climate change over the past few years.

Jeff Masters
The studying of the worlds atmosphere and the storms that form within it makes perfect sense. Hurricanes form over warm ocean waters and if our Earth is warming, Whether it is man made or not it is worth posting it on this blog....Just my harmless opinion.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21414
738. tornadodude
7:07 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
here ya go Hydrus:

Special Weather Statement

SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT...CORRECTED FOR WORDING AND PUNCTUATION
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NASHVILLE TN
622 AM CST TUE JAN 26 2010

TNZ005>011-022>034-056>066-075-077>080-093>095-262200-
STEWART-MONTGOMERY-ROBERTSON-SUMNER-MACON-CLAY-PICKETT-BENTON-
HOUSTON-HUMPHREYS-DICKSON-CHEATHAM-DAVIDSON-WILSON-TROUSDALE-
SMITH-JACKSON-PUTNAM-OVERTON-FENTRESS-PERRY-HICKMAN-LEWIS-
WILLIAMSON-MAURY-MARSHALL-RUTHERFORD-CANNON-DEKALB-WHITE-
CUMBERLAND-BEDFORD-COFFEE-WARREN-GRUNDY-VAN BUREN-WAYNE-LAWRENCE-
GILES-
INCLUDING THE CITIES OF...DOVER...CLARKSVILLE...SPRINGFIELD...
GALLATIN...LAFAYETTE...CELINA...BYRDSTOWN...CAMDEN...ERIN...
WAVERLY...DICKSON...ASHLAND CITY...KINGSTON SPRINGS...NASHVILLE...
LEBANON...MOUNT JULIET...HARTSVILLE...CARTHAGE...GAINESBORO...
COOKEVILLE...LIVINGSTON...JAMESTOWN...ALLARDT...LINDEN...
LOBELVILLE...CENTERVILLE...HOHENWALD...FRANKLIN...BRENTWOOD...
COLUMBIA...LEWISBURG...MURFREESBORO...WOODBURY...SMITHVILLE...
SPARTA...CROSSVILLE...FAIRFIELD GLADE...SHELBYVILLE...TULLAHOMA...
MANCHESTER...MCMINNVILLE...TRACY CITY...ALTAMONT...COALMONT...
SPENCER...WAYNESBORO...LAWRENCEBURG...PULASKI
622 AM CST TUE JAN 26 2010

...STILL A POTENTIAL FOR LATE WEEK WINTER STORM IN MIDDLE
TENNESSEE...

A WINTER STORM IS STILL FORECAST FOR MIDDLE TENNESSEE LATE
THIS WEEK...WITH THE POSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING SIGNIFICANT SNOW
AND ICE ACCUMULATIONS. COMPUTER MODELS HAVE BECOME MORE AND
MORE CONSISTENT WITH THIS FORECAST OVER THE LAST SEVERAL
DAYS...AND FOR THE POTENTIAL FOR A SIGNIFICANT WINTER STORM BY
THE END OF THE WEEK. THOSE PLANNING TRAVEL DURING THAT PERIOD
SHOULD REMAIN AWARE OF THE LATEST WEATHER FORECAST.

A LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM IS EXPECTED TO MOVE FROM WEST TEXAS
THURSDAY EASTWARD INTO NORTH LOUISIANA ON FRIDAY MORNING...
AND THEN INTO COASTAL PLAINS OF GEORGIA BY SATURDAY MORNING.
THIS SYSTEM WILL PROVIDE AN INCREASE IN MOISTURE POTENTIAL
ACROSS THE MID STATE...ALONG WITH PULLING IN COLDER AIR FROM
THE NORTH ASSOCIATED WITH A STRONG HIGH PRESSURE CENTER
EXPECTED TO BE POSITIONED ACROSS THE MIDWEST.

THE TIME OF GREATEST IMPACT WILL BE THURSDAY NIGHT THROUGH FRIDAY
NIGHT...AND THIS IS HOW THINGS COULD POSSIBLY UNFOLD...

...FOR THURSDAY NIGHT...CHANGE FROM RAIN TO SNOW ACROSS NORTHERN
PORTIONS OF THE MID STATE...GENERALLY ALONG AND NORTH OF INTERSTATE
40...WITH A MIX OF RAIN...SLEET...AND FREEZING RAIN SOUTH OF THIS
AREA. SNOW AND ICE ACCUMULATIONS ARE POSSIBLE.

...FOR FRIDAY...SNOW CONTINUES ACROSS THE NORTH...WITH SNOW
SPREADING TOWARD THE TENNESSEE/ALABAMA BORDER DURING THE DAY.
LOCATIONS ACROSS SOUTHERN MIDDLE TENNESSEE NOT EXPERIENCING
SNOWFALL...WILL CONTINUE TO EXPERIENCE A MIX OF RAIN...SLEET
...AND FREEZING RAIN. SIGNIFICANT ACCUMULATIONS OF SNOW AND ICE ARE
PROBABLE...ESPECIALLY DURING THE AFTERNOON HOURS ON FRIDAY.

...FOR FRIDAY NIGHT...MUCH COLDER AIR SPREADS ACROSS THE ENTIRE
MID STATE...RESULTING IN SNOWFALL ACROSS THE ENTIRE MID STATE.
ADDITIONAL SNOW AND ICE ACCUMULATIONS ARE POSSIBLE.

THERE IS STILL SOME UNCERTAINTY REGARDING THE EVENTUAL TRACK OF
THE LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM. THEREFORE...IT IS DIFFICULT STILL TO
PROVIDE A RELIABLE FORECAST OF TOTAL SNOW AND ICE ACCUMULATIONS
PRESENTLY. HOWEVER...IT APPEARS THAT THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF
SIGNIFICANT SNOW AND ICE ACCUMULATION EVENT OCCURRING OVER A LARGE
PART...IF NOT ALL...OF THE MID STATE BY THE TIME PRECIPITATION
TAPERS OFF LATE FRIDAY NIGHT ACROSS MOST OF THE MID STATE.
HOWEVER...A CHANCE OF LIGHT SNOW SHOWERS WILL CONTINUE ACROSS
NORTHEASTERN PORTIONS OF THE MID STATE...INCLUDING THE NORTHERN
CUMBERLAND PLATEAU REGION...THROUGH THE DAY ON SATURDAY...WHICH
COULD PROVIDE FOR SOME ADDITIONAL MINOR ACCUMULATIONS ON TOP OF
SNOWFALL THAT HAS ALREADY FALLEN...AS TEMPERATURES ACROSS THAT
REGION WILL REMAIN BELOW FREEZING.
$$
31/JBW










Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8360
737. TampaTom
7:05 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting Floodman:


Wow, great minds, and all like that!


Something about synapses firing simultaneously.... :-)
Member Since: June 20, 2005 Posts: 22 Comments: 1054
736. tornadodude
7:04 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting Floodman:
Hey, hydrus, what's up?


He should be getting ready for some snow!
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8360
735. Floodman
7:03 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Hey, hydrus, what's up?
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
734. tornadodude
7:03 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
732,731.

LOL!
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 25 Comments: 8360
733. Floodman
7:03 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting TampaTom:


'cause they are just so good!


Wow, great minds, and all like that!
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
732. Floodman
7:02 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting CaneWarning:


Why does everyone always play oldies?


'Cause they're good!
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
731. TampaTom
7:02 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting CaneWarning:


Why does everyone always play oldies?


'cause they are just so good!
Member Since: June 20, 2005 Posts: 22 Comments: 1054
730. CaneWarning
7:01 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Quoting TampaTom:
Hey, Flood... Maybe everyone needs to hear this one from George Harrison... kinda makes me feel better...



Why does everyone always play oldies?
Member Since: April 26, 2009 Posts: 3 Comments: 3667
729. TampaTom
7:00 PM GMT on January 26, 2010
Hey, Flood... Maybe everyone needs to hear this one from George Harrison... kinda makes me feel better...

Member Since: June 20, 2005 Posts: 22 Comments: 1054

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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