The Lost Hurricane/Typhoon Hunters VI: Typhoon Bess, October 12th, 1974

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:20 PM GMT on December 28, 2009

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It's getting to be the end of the year, and its time to conclude the 6-part series I began earlier this year honoring the memory of the hurricane and typhoon hunter missions that never returned to base. I've made a permanent link to the series on the "Articles of Interest" section of our tropical/hurricane page.

The most recent recent loss of a Hurricane Hunter flight came on October 12, 1974. An Air Force WC-130H (tail number 65-0965, call sign Swan 38), from the 54th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron based at Anderson AFB, Guam, was lost in the South China Sea while flying Category 1 Typhoon Bess. Bess had formed east of the Philippines on October 8, then passed over northern Luzon Island on the 11th, triggering flooding and landslides that killed 29 people and caused $9 million in damage. On the 12th, Bess emerged over the South China Sea as a minimal Category 1 typhoon with 75 mph winds, and "Swan 38" was sent out to provide reconnaissance information. The aircraft had only recently arrived at the 54th WRS after having been converted to WC-130H, and had previously spent eight years assigned to combat rescue as an HC-130H. Swan 38 departed Clark Air Base in the Philippines, and successfully completed its first penetration and most of an "Alpha pattern" peripheral track. They were preparing for their second penetration, on the north side of the storm about 400 miles northwest of Clark AFB, when the last radio contact came at about 2200. An investigation board later speculated the crew was on the final leg inbound to make a second fix when they encountered some catastrophic problem. No emergency communications were received. Four days of relentless searching by rescue aircraft and two surface ships proved unsuccessful, and the six crewmen were declared missing and presumed dead. The name "Bess" was retired from the active list of typhoon names as a result of the loss, and the call sign "Swan 38" was also retired. A plaque honoring the crew was affixed to the squadron building at Andersen AFB (the plaque was removed when the 54th closed in 1987, and it's whereabouts are currently unknown). The crew members, carried on AWS rolls as Killed In Action, were:

Capt Edward R. Bushnell
1Lt Gary W. Crass
1Lt Michael P. O'Brien
1Lt Timothy J. Hoffman
TSgt Kenneth G. Suhr
Sgt Detlef W. Ringler


Figure 1. Above: plaque dedicated to the crew of Swan 38 (WC-130H 65-0965), located at Kirtland AFB. Inset image, top left: Swan 38 during an engine-running crew change at Guam in 1974. Image credit: Tom Robison.

Sources: Air Reconnaissance Weather Association May 2008 Newsletter; New York Times 13 Oct 1974 58:1; http://www.awra.us/WhiskeyCharlie.html by Tom Robison, 1974 Annual Typhoon report of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.

Other notes:
The Air Force has had 24 weather reconnaissance missions that have resulted in loss of life; only three of these were typhoon flights. A full list of the missions is at the Air Weather Reconnaissance Association web site.

Special addendum: a Cold War mystery
September 10, 1956: An Air Force RB-50G Superfortress flying in the vicinity of Typhoon Emma was lost over the Sea of Japan. This was not a typhoon hunting aircraft, as is often reported. The aircraft was stationed at Yokota Air Base, Japan, and assigned to the 41st Air Division, 5th Air Force, and was performing electronic of photographic intelligence of the Soviet Union, North Korea, and China. The military gave out a "cover story" saying that the aircraft was lost performing weather reconnaissance. From Bernie Barris of the Air Reconnaissance Weather Association, "This aircraft was NOT lost in a typhoon penetration, nor was it shot down by the Soviets, as was often speculated. It was an RB-50G on a Strategic Reconnaissance mission. Everything I've read is that they were on the fringes of the typhoon, but more than likely the plane was lost due to mechanical problems, which plagued the B-50 in the 1950's. The typhoon did impact search efforts. The Soviets never released any records of tracking or attacking this flight; it is one of those true Cold War mysteries."


Figure 2. A Popular Mechanics cover story from 1950 dramatized the dangers that the early typhoon hunters faced. From the article: "It is impossible for me to describe accurately or exaggerate the severity of the turbulence we encountered. To some it may sound utterly fantastic, but to me it was a flight for life. I have flown many weather missions in my 30 months with the 514th Reconnaissance Squadron. I have flown night combat missions in rough weather out of England, and I have instructed instrument flying in the States, but never have I dreamed of such turbulence as we encountered in Typhoon Beverly. It is amazing to me the ship held together as it did."

Next post
My final post of the year will be on Wednesday or Thursday. I plan to present my pick for the top U.S. weather story of 2009.

Jeff Masters

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But Press, what you and Portlight have done is what makes all the difference. Might be in a bad mood, but when that present on wheels gets delivered, all those worries and foul moods will go away.
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Quoting Floodman:
Sheri, you're never alone...remember that. Check your WUMail and let us know when Pat and Atmo get there


Ron, Hey and Thank you. check ur WUmail.I will let cha know when they get here. I don't know when they left.

Sheri
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Quoting presslord:
..well...here's the dark side...I have a sinus infection, I have a kidney stone...I haven't slept in three nights...and in 10 minutes I have a meeting with a retail tenant who hasn't paid a dime in rent in two months...I'm an Irish Catholic in a foul mood...Care to guess who's about to have a really bad morning?


the tenant
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..well...here's the dark side...I have a sinus infection, I have a kidney stone...I haven't slept in three nights...and in 10 minutes I have a meeting with a retail tenant who hasn't paid a dime in rent in two months...I'm an Irish Catholic in a foul mood...Care to guess who's about to have a really bad morning?
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Local forecast I made for my area last night at 6PM EST

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Tampa, ref to the talk about the freezing temps all the way down to Miami. I have seen that we are getting cold fronts, but not nearly as strong as that map predicts. What is the reason for the freezing talk in South Florida or better phrased why is it that the arctic Jet stream is acting this way?
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Quoting presslord:
I know I kid around a lot here...but this time I'm dead serious...

The compassion and generosity of this community is simply overwhelming!! Jeff Masters should be enormously proud of what he's created here...


I've told him that a few times...you are some of the best people I know...
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Hello all. Welcome back AIM!
Member Since: July 25, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 563
Sheri, you're never alone...remember that. Check your WUMail and let us know when Pat and Atmo get there
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Please don't banned me for this.

Not to worry, Sheri...they even let ME out of WU Jail for this special day!
I'm a Disinherited Princess, too! Glad to see I'm in such good company!

A smiling baby face when that car arrives will be a huge reward for us, Sheri! I just hope grandbaby isn't terrified!
-----------------------------
We're going to see the movie "Avatar" in a little while! Will check back in to see how the mission is going later today!

Prof. Ricky's blog on the Yaris in Maryland during the blizzard is a HOOT! I got to visit lots of places I hadn't been before while I was banned...they're gonna' be so sor-ree!

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Sheri...I'm pretty certain you don't need to worry about getting banned for that...
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I hope I don't get banned for this it's off the subject.
But I want to Thank each and everyone of you all for the help,I don't know what I would do, when I wrote what I did on my blog I really didn't expect this at all. I am very amazed and just don't have enough words to describe how you all have made me feel. See usually you turn to family in times like this but my mom or dad after there major divorce don't have anything to do with me or my little family. They both have there own lives. But me and hubby has been together since 1986 and still going strong. Hit a pretty bad rough spot in the last few months and it feels like we are drowning like a bobber. I hope the new year will be better. You all have open you hearts to my family and you just don't know what that means to us. I have meet some pretty magnificent folks on this blog and i feel like your my family. I can't say it enough Thank You so very much. And as soon as we get on our feet I will Pay It Forward. I promise.

God Bless,
Very Grateful,
Sheri
Please don't banned me for this.
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I know I kid around a lot here...but this time I'm dead serious...

The compassion and generosity of this community is simply overwhelming!! Jeff Masters should be enormously proud of what he's created here...
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Quoting TheKeeper:
Wow, where have I been the last couple of days. Just now hearing about Operation Satsuma East. Been in similar situation, and had help, likewise. It is my honor to pay it forward to you, Sheri and family! It is a "magnificent obsession"! Portlight, you guys rock the casa! Safe trip and God bless you all!
mary

It's never too late! Bless you also, Keeper, 'tis a grand thing you just did!
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Quoting TampaSpin:
The consistency of all models bringing the very cold air mass to the SouthEast late next week, i now believe will occur as nearly every model has been showing this for days now. With the SubTropical Jet being so consistent this year in bring moisture to the SouthEast also.....that collision will occur at some point as the extreme cold air stays in place for about 7 days and there is no way some moisture does not hit that cold in a 7 day time. Just my opinion but from Louisiana to Northern Florida. Those peeps might want to freshen up on there driving skills on ice and snow.

For many people in the south, "ice and snow driving skills" means learning how to leave the keys at home and not go anywhere.
Member Since: August 3, 2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5880
Wow, where have I been the last couple of days. Just now hearing about Operation Satsuma East. Been in similar situation, and had help, likewise. It is my honor to pay it forward to you, Sheri and family! It is a "magnificent obsession"! Portlight, you guys rock the casa! Safe trip and God bless you all!

mary
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Quoting Canekid98:
what about SE Texas? hmmmmmmmmmmmmm we have lows for tuesday at 24 then 29 then 32 then 30... tell me there has to be moisture in with us....

Not much moisture for us during that time, tmk.
Member Since: August 3, 2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5880
Quoting Patrap:
G'morning Wuba Nation,..

Operation 'Satsuma East' is about to roll this morning.

The ATMO Portlight Launch Vehicle is packed and ready for Launch.

All systems are "Go".


Godspeed, AtmoAggie & Patrap! Should we be glad that a caffeinated Atmo is driving today??

Is it a 3-hour tour?

Got camera? Or cell-phone camera? Take lots of pics, please!!
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Good Morning -- Whoo Hoo, I'm out of WU jail!

Thank you Aussie, for the beautiful pictures -- and in this morning's news from down under...

'Best Job' winner stung by dangerous jellyfish
By TANALEE SMITH, Associated Press Writer
1 hr 56 mins ago

First few paragraphs:

ADELAIDE, Australia %u2013 Trouble struck paradise this week when a British man who has the "Best Job in the World" as the caretaker of a tropical Australian island was stung by a potentially lethal jellyfish.

Ben Southall %u2014 who won a contest to blog for six months about life on Australia's Hamilton Island to promote tourism %u2014 wrote Tuesday that he was lucky to have survived his brush with the extremely venomous Irukandji jellyfish.

Earlier this week, Southall was getting off a Jet Ski in the ocean when he felt "a small bee-like sting" on his arm. When he later noticed a tingling in his hands and feet, island staff took Southall immediately to the doctor.

Progressive symptoms of fever, headache, lower back pain, chest tightness and high blood pressure led the doctor to diagnose that Southall had been stung by an Irukandji jellyfish. He was given pain medication and slept off the venom's effects overnight.

Didn't Grothar serve this for that Norwegian holiday dinner?!
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HERE Is the 1000mb surface temperature forecast for 10 days.....gang it has not changed one bit in the last few days....its got freezing temps all the way to Miami

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what about SE Texas? hmmmmmmmmmmmmm we have lows for tuesday at 24 then 29 then 32 then 30... tell me there has to be moisture in with us....
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GOM IR Loop


Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 128216
The consistency of all models bringing the very cold air mass to the SouthEast late next week, i now believe will occur as nearly every model has been showing this for days now. With the SubTropical Jet being so consistent this year in bring moisture to the SouthEast also.....that collision will occur at some point as the extreme cold air stays in place for about 7 days and there is no way some moisture does not hit that cold in a 7 day time. Just my opinion but from Louisiana to Northern Florida. Those peeps might want to freshen up on there driving skills on ice and snow.
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Quoting Patrap:
60 Hour CONUS Forecast Surface Map.


Note the 985mb Surface Low off the NW Coast

One to Watch for sure,as that one may bring the Artic Ice Box Down.



Pat that is the culprit that brings the icebox to the south.
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Quoting presslord:


I'm takin' notes here, buster...


Sir, do you have your triple thick bi-focals on when your trying to see to write those notes......LOL
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THE HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL PREDICTION CENTER
CAMP SPRINGS, MD
SHORT RANGE FORECAST DISCUSSION


SHORT RANGE FORECAST DISCUSSION
NWS HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL PREDICTION CENTER CAMP SPRINGS MD
402 AM EST WED DEC 30 2009

VALID 12Z WED DEC 30 2009 - 00Z FRI JAN 01 2010

IT WILL BE A WET FORECAST FOR MUCH OF THE U.S. WITH MOST LOCATIONS
SEEING ANY RAINFALL OR WINTRY WEATHER WITH THE EXCEPTION BEING
ACROSS THE MIDDLE OF THE COUNTRY. THE BEST CHANCE FOR HEAVIER
ACCUMULATIONS WILL BE OVER THE WESTERN U.S. AS A SERIES OF
DISTURBANCES SLAM INTO THE REGION THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS. THE
FIRST SUCH SYSTEM HAS ALREADY PUSHED INLAND AND SHOULD WEAKEN AS
IT INTERACTS WITH THE ELEVATED TOPOGRAPHY. HOWEVER...ENOUGH
MOISTURE WILL MAKE ITS WAY INLAND TO ASSIST IN THE PRODUCTION OF
WIDESPREAD SNOW SHOWERS ACROSS A BULK OF THE INTERIOR MOUNTAIN
WEST. CONDITIONS SHOULD GRADUALLY IMPROVE ACROSS MUCH OF THE WEST
COAST BEFORE AN EVEN STRONGER SYSTEM EDGES CLOSER TO THE SHORE.
ITS EFFECTS WILL BE FELT NEW YEARS EVE NIGHT AS A STRENGTHENING
ONSHORE FLOW WILL DRAW A LARGE AMOUNT OF MOISTURE INTO THE PACIFIC
NORTHWEST AND DOWN INTO NORTHERN CALIFORNIA. HEAVY AMOUNTS OF
PRECIPITATION ARE EXPECTED WITH THIS SYSTEM GIVEN THE ANOMALOUS
STRENGTH OF ITS DYNAMICS AND MOISTURE CONTENT. SNOW LEVELS WILL
INITIALLY BE ON THE HIGHER END BEFORE THE FRONTAL BOUNDARY MAKES
ITS WAY INLAND BY NEW YEARS MORNING. MODERATE TO HEAVY RAINFALL
CAN BE EXPECTED ACROSS THE COASTAL AND VALLEY REGIONS WITH SNOW
PICKING UP IN INTENSITY ACROSS THE WASHINGTON CASCADES.

THE OTHER MAJOR SYSTEM IS CURRENTLY PUSHING ACROSS THE MISSISSIPPI
RIVER VALLEY. A WIDESPREAD AREA OF LIGHT SNOW ACROSS THE MIDDLE
MISSISSIPPI VALLEY IS GRADUALLY EDGING EASTWARD WITH ACCUMULATIONS
ON THE LOWER END GIVEN MEAGER MOISTURE RETURN ACROSS THE REGION.
CLOSER TO THE GULF COAST...A WEAK AREA OF LOW PRESSURE WILL SPREAD
SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS ALONG THE IMMEDIATE GULF COAST ON
WEDNESDAY AND INTO NEW YEARS EVE. EVENTUALLY...A SURFACE LOW IS
FORECAST TO DEVELOP ALONG THE EAST COAST AND GRADUALLY RISE
NORTHWARD WITH IMPACTS OVER THE EAST ON NEW YEARS EVE. IT SHOULD
PREDOMINANTLY BE A RAIN EVENT...WITH A MIXTURE OF PRECIPITATION
TYPES ACROSS THE CENTRAL APPALACHIANS AND MID-ATLANTIC REGION.
FARTHER NORTH...IT IS EXPECTED TO BE COLD ENOUGH TO SUPPORT
SNOWFALL ACROSS THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY AND MUCH OF THE GREAT LAKES.

A STRONG FRONTAL BOUNDARY DROPPING SOUTHWARD ACROSS THE PLAINS IS
BRINGING YET ANOTHER SHOT OF COLD AIR TO THE CENTRAL U.S. ONCE THE
SURFACE HIGH PRESSURE AREA BUILDS BEHIND THE SYSTEM...MUCH COLDER
AND DRIER AIR WILL BEGIN TO SPILL IN. BY NEW YEARS EVE
NIGHT...TEMPERATURES ACROSS THE NORTHERN TIER STATES WILL PLUNGE
WELL INTO THE NEGATIVE SINGLE DIGITS WITH WIND CHILLS APPROACHING
THE -25 TO -30 DEGREE MARK MAKING CONDITIONS DANGEROUSLY COLD.


RUBIN-OSTER

GRAPHICS AVAILABLE AT WWW.HPC.NCEP.NOAA.GOV




Last Updated: 402 AM EST WED DEC 30 2009


Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 128216
ECMWF cold solutions are being discounted at this time by HPC.
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60 Hour CONUS Forecast Surface Map.


Note the 985mb Surface Low off the NW Coast

One to Watch for sure,as that one may bring the Artic Ice Box Down.

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 128216
1043Z CONUS Surface Map


Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 128216
Hee,hee,..hee..

I bet you's are.

We will update by Blackberry en-route and return Boss.
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807. unf97
Good morning!

We had a rapid temperature drop from sunset to about 10 p.m. It was 36 degrees registered on the thermometer around 10 p.m. last night.

However, clouds moved in overnight in advance of the next shortwave which will be moving through the next 48 hours. Currently, the temperature is 43 degrees. We will have a brief warm-up today and Thursday ahead of this system, with rain moving through beginning Thursday into early portion of New Year's Day. Then the cold front will pass through and colder air will return for the weekend.

I did a quick review of the WFO discussions this morning and it appears that at this time the ECMWF keeps the GOM system farther south and weak on Monday, while the GFS depicts it closer to the coast with a somewhat better moisture field. Well, either this will be nothing much at all to come of this, or we could see a modest winter event on Monday. Oh the flip- flopping of the model runs! That's the fun part of weather forecasting LOL..

The mets at the WFOs highlight how quickly the models can change and flip-flop from run to run. I am certain this will continue for the next couple of days as well.

Bottom line: One thing for certain is the models are consistent in bring the arctic air mass into the Eastern CONUS next week. It definitely will be bone numbing cold.

Keep watching the model runs as I am certain of more changes will probably ve depicted in the coming days.

Have a great day everyone!
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Quoting Patrap:
Sir...?

Never say Sir to an Enlisted man,

..now Presslord,we can call "Sir",cuz hes older than Both of us put together.

He creaks when he walks too.


I'm takin' notes here, buster...
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Sir...?

Never say Sir to an Enlisted man,

..now Presslord,we can call "Sir",cuz hes older than Both of us put together.

He creaks when he walks too.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 128216
Quoting Patrap:
G'morning Aussie,or Afternoon to yas down under.

Were on a mission to help a wu-member in Alabama.

Portlight Mission 12/30/09


Your chariot awaits you Sir Patrap.

But your driver still needs that stiff cup of coffee...
(this particular coffee pot is sloooowwwwwww)
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G'morning Aussie,or Afternoon to yas down under.

Were on a mission to help a wu-member in Alabama.

Portlight Mission 12/30/09

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 128216
Quoting Patrap:
G'morning Wuba Nation,..

Operation 'Satsuma East' is about to roll this morning.

The ATMO Portlight Launch Vehicle is packed and ready for Launch.

All systems are "Go".


What are you delivering this time Pat?
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Quoting IKE:


It ain't happening.



Trends are there, let's see what happens mid January / early February when we typically see some deeper lows. The chance of snow in the deep south is the greatest it's been in a long time.
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.."Roger".. on the behave.

Now on the way back though...



Some Light to Moderate rains expected,esp on the return trip this afternoon.



Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 128216
you boys behave...
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G'morning Wuba Nation,..

Operation 'Satsuma East' is about to roll this morning.

The ATMO Portlight Launch Vehicle is packed and ready for Launch.

All systems are "Go".

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 128216
796. IKE
I'm at 42.6 in the Florida panhandle. Clouds have moved in overnight.
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Well, that was very strange, temp for Macon this morning was supposed to hit 27*F. Had dropped to 28.5 at 0100 hrs and then the wind shifted to WSW. Temp has risen to 36.5 as of 0700 hrs. Covered everything in the veggie garden last night just in case. The broccoli seem to love the cold weather but the sugar snap peas don't care for it at all. I'm with them. :)
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Rain wraps up wet month in NSW, Australia

A rainy end to the month gave a welcomed Christmas present to areas of New South Wales, while breaking records for December falls across the state.

From the central west to the northwest and stretching over the northeast coast, areas saw December rainfall records broken as the holiday dumping raised the totals.

December for Dubbo typically means a dry month, usually their second driest of the year. This year brought a change with the total monthly rainfall exceeding the average by 142mm(5.6inches), making it their wettest December in 15 years of records with 189mm.

Wellington saw a total of 173mm(6.8inches) and their wettest December in 128 years of records. Orange saw 123mm(4.8inches), though not record breaking they did see over 40mm(1.57inches) in a 24 hour period twice in December, breaking the previous record of 39mm(1.53inches).

Towards the north, Tamworth saw an astonishing 144mm(5.6inches) so far for December, making it their wettest December in 16 years of records. This is also a feat exceeded only four other times for any month on record.

Towards the coast, Port Macquarie saw their wettest December in 14 years of records with 177mm(6.9inches) and it was the wettest December in 20 years for Kempsey with 163mm(6.4inches). All this was from a low pressure trough which developed from ex-STC Laurence.

- Weatherzone
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Those Miami temps must be at the coast. I'm ~5 miles inland and temps will be ~5 deg cooler, still not bad. The jet needs to stay north, I'm just getting some vine ripe tomatoes on my plants, don't want any freeze.
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792. IKE
Looks like nice weather for Miami,FL. on Sunday and Monday...

Sunday Night: Mostly clear, with a low around 52.

Monday: Sunny, with a high near 69.

Monday Night: Partly cloudy, with a low around 52.

Tuesday: Mostly sunny, with a high near 71.




A little chillier up here in the panhandle...

Sunday Night: Mostly clear, with a low around 29.

Monday: A 20 percent chance of rain. Partly cloudy, with a high near 49.

Monday Night: A 20 percent chance of rain. Mostly cloudy, with a low around 24.

Tuesday: Sunny, with a high near 50.
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sechawk 604 On February 14, the low temperature in Miami, Florida was 29 °F (−2 °C), the second-coldest (and the first sub-freezing) temperature that the city has ever recorded.

This is an entry from the logbook at Biscayne House of Refuge, December 29, 1894.. the first of the freezes that winter. The HOR was located about 72 street on what we call today Miami Beach.

W.H. Fulford Keeper
Dec. 29,1894. Very Cold, sunrise 30 degrees, noon 35 degrees. 13

now, the winter cold snap of Thanksgiving 1876 was also cold, my Great Great Grandfather Keeper at Orange Grove HOR while leaving Biscayne HOR from meeting the Superintendant Dist 5 USLSS, killed a small (4ft)crocodile at the mouth of Indian Creek with a stick because it was comotose from the cold. His son Charlie Pierce at Orange Grove HOR reported that a bucket of water on the porch froze solid through. (Delray Brach, on the ocean dune)
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I'm freezin'...
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789. IKE
00Z CMC...


00Z UKMET...


00Z NOGAPS...
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788. IKE
Quoting IKE:


It ain't happening.


Or is it?....if it does....crow me baby...

New Orleans extended....

"LONG TERM...
A STRONG POLAR AIR MASS WILL MOVE INTO THE AREA MONDAY. AT THE SAME
TIME A SFC LOW IS EXPECTED TO DEVELOP OVER THE WESTERN GULF AND
MOVE EAST. SUFFICE IT TO SAY THAT TIMING PLACEMENT AND STRENGTH OF THE LOW
IS GOING TO MEAN EVERYTHING WITH THE FCAST STARTING THE NEW WEEK.
HAVE SET A SLIGHT CHANCE OF SNOW FOR LATE SUN NIGHT INTO MON
MORNING TO MAINLY SHOW CONSISTENCY.
CONFIDENCE IS NOT STRONG WITH
THIS SYSTEM ATTM AND GLOBAL SOLUTIONS ARE ALL OVER THE PLACE WITH
REGARDS TO MASS FIELDS. WE DO NOT WANT TO GO ANY HIGHER AT THIS
POINT WITH POP NUMBERS DUE TO THE SHIFTING FROM VERY DRY IN ONE
RUN TO SNOW STORM IN ANOTHER. THIS SCENARIO WILL OBVIOUSLY HAVE
TO BE EVALUATED FURTHER AS WE APPROACH THE EXTENDED PORTION OF THE
FCAST."
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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