The uncertain legacy of Copenhagen

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 8:39 PM GMT on December 22, 2009

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The Copenhagen (COP15) climate summit is over, and leaves an uncertain legacy. What was accomplished in Copenhagen was far outweighed by what was not accomplished. While the final Copenhagen Accord affirmed that we must hold the warming of our planet below 2°C above pre-industrial levels by 2100 to avert dangerous climate change, no timetable for accomplishing that goal was specified. The promises made by the various nations at the summit would likely lead to a 3.9°C warming of the planet, according to an analysis by MIT's Sustainability Institute. Copenhagen did demonstrate that the hype preceding the talks was not undeserved--the stakes involved are huge, and we have an epic political battle on our hands that will afford high drama in 2010. Probably the best summary of the political battle at Copenhagen was posted by author Mark Lynas on the UK Guardian's web site. The title of the article was, "How do I know China wrecked the Copenhagen deal? I was in the room".

The leaders for greenhouse gas reductions
While the Copenhagen Summit made it clear that the coming battle will feature the U.S. and China, the voices of two tiny island nations--Tuvalu and The Maldives--will be important as well. When ranked by percentage of population located near the coast at an elevation of ten meters or less, the top five spots are held by small island nations with more than 90% of their population in this Low Elevation Coastal Zone--the Maldives, Marshall Islands, Tuvalu, Cayman Islands, and Turks and Caicos Islands (McGranahan et al., 2007). The very existence of these island nations are threatened by sea level rise due to climate change. The leaders of Tuvalu and The Maldives brought considerable attention to their plight at the Copenhagen conference, and President Mohamed Nasheed of the Maldives, in particular, has made his tiny country a force to be reckoned with in the coming battle.


Figure 1. President Mohamed Nasheed of the Maldives, Vice President Dr Mohamed Waheed and 11 cabinet ministers donned scuba gear and submerged 4 meters below the surface of sea to hold the world's first underwater cabinet meeting on October 17, 2009, in order to dramatize the threat sea level rise poses to their country.

The leaders against greenhouse gas reductions
Canada has joined Saudi Arabia as a leading voice against efforts to control emissions of greenhouse gases. According to The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI), which is published annually by Germanwatch and CAN-Europe, Canada ranks second to last in climate policy and in overall efforts to tackle climate change, among the 57 industrialized countries and emerging economies that together account for more than 90 per cent of global energy-related CO2 emissions. Canada's national statement at COP15 featured no commitments of money or targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and Canada also lobbied to change the "base" year from when emission reductions should be computed from 1990 to 2006. Croatia was the only other country to support Canada's position. The notorious political pranksters The Yes Men dramatized Canada's position by issuing a phony press release during COP15 claiming that Canada had come to its senses and was now going to work toward a 40 per cent cut in greenhouse gas emissions, the type of cut scientists say is necessary if we are to avoid dangerous warming of more than 2°C over pre-industrial levels. Canadian reporters immediately recognized the news release as a hoax. Canadian politics is heavily dominated by the fossil fuel industry, and Canadian reporters immediately saw the impossibility of the Canadian government performing an about-face on climate policy.


Figure 2. The top ten and bottom ten performing countries on the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI), published annually by Germanwatch and CAN-Europe to rank the efforts to combat climate change of the 57 industrialized countries and emerging economies that together account for more than 90 per cent of global energy-related CO2 emissions. The ranking system factors in three scores: the emissions level (CO2 per primary energy unit, primary energy unit per GDP, and primary energy unit per capita); the emissions trend (whether emissions are rising or falling), and a subjective rating of the nation's national and international climate policy. Tall bars indicate a higher ranking, and thin bars represent a poor ranking. None of the 57 countries were doing enough to keep global warming below 2°C, so the top three spots on the list were left blank. Image credit: Germanwatch.org.

Comparison with the battle over CFC regulations and the ozone hole
On June 28, 1974, Sherry Rowland and Mario Molina, chemists at the University of California, Irvine, published the first scientific paper warning that human-generated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could cause serious harm to Earth's protective ozone layer (Molina and Rowland, 1974). They calculated that if CFC production continued to increase at the going rate of 10%/year until 1990, then remain steady, CFCs would cause a global 5 to 7 percent ozone loss by 1995 and 30 - 50% loss by 2050.

They warned that the loss of ozone would significantly increase the amount of skin-damaging ultraviolet UV-B light reaching the surface, greatly increasing skin cancer and cataracts. The loss of stratospheric ozone could also significantly cool the stratosphere, potentially causing destructive climate change. Although no stratospheric ozone loss had been observed yet, CFCs should be banned, they said. A huge international political battle ensued, one that eerily echoes many of the same themes as the battle over global warming. In a 1984 interview in The New Yorker, Dr. Rowland concluded, "Nothing will be done about this problem until there is further evidence that a significant loss of ozone has occurred. Unfortunately, this means that if there is a disaster in the making in the stratosphere we are probably not going to avoid it." These prophetic words were proved true the very next year with the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. Speedy action to save the planet from potentially disastrous loss of the ozone layer was realized with the swift implementation of the Montreal Protocol two years later, though.

As was the case with the battle over the CFCs and the ozone layer, I expect it will take a obvious imminent climate change disaster to motivate governments to take strong action. I believed in September 2007 that such an event had occurred, when the Arctic ice cap lost more than half of its area, compared to levels observed in the early 1950s. I was astounded at the nonchalance the event earned in the press and among politicians. But, in hindsight I should not have been surprised, since the stakes are very much higher than the battle to ban CFCs--now we are talking about the fossil fuel industry, the very basis for our modern industrialized society. A very big, very obvious disaster in the making will probably be needed to motivate strong enough action to make a major difference in CO2 emissions. Our climate is certainly capable of generating such an event in the coming decade. Unfortunately, if we wait until a disaster is obviously imminent, we will have far less time to prevent a climate disaster than we had for the ozone depletion crisis. The lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere is 50 - 140 years, but a substantial portion of the CO2 put in the air stays for thousands of years. According to the 2007 IPCC report, "About 50% of a CO2 increase will be removed from the atmosphere within 30 years, and a further 30% will be removed within a few centuries. The remaining 20% may stay in the atmosphere for many thousands of years."

References
McGranahan, G., D. Balk, and B. Anderson, 2007, "The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones", Environment & Urbanization, 19(1), 17-37.

Molina, M.J., and F.S. Rowland, "Stratospheric Sink for Chlorofluoromethanes: Chlorine Atom-Catalyzed Destruction of Ozone", Nature 249, 810-812, 1974.

Next post
Have a great Christmas, everyone, and I'll be back with a new post on Monday (at the latest).

Jeff Masters

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JB this morn.


SUNDAY 8 AM
POST LATER TODAY..ON THE ROAD

I do want to point out that this system in the midwest is as described below, and though not a fair swap, many people that lost their snow yesterday, will get some of it back later tonight and tomorrow.

I have no changes on the ideas below even though modeling is all over the place. The overall pattern is looking more and more like the end of Dec 2000 for this weekend, and the second part of this is more the threat in NYC than lets say DC, Remember the blizzard was bigger in DC than in NYC and BOS. However the first part of this may cause it snow in Dallas Tuesday, and then Dc Wednesday night or Thur, before we see what goodies await later.

What a pattern worldwide. Europe is about to get hammered as is the far east. It could be the coldest opening 10 days of the year in the big 3 teleconnection points ( far east, eastern NA and europe since 1977 and the days The chief science commissar, John Holdren, was thinking an ice age is coming.

I wonder if we are going to here that..... climate change means an ice age is around the corner.

ciao for now ****
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1337. IKE
Quoting PensacolaDoug:


Yeah me too Ike. Too bad I got no faith in the GFS beyond 4 days or so. It shows three events for us in quick succession. Unfortunately the first one doesn't start untill the 7th of Jan then 2 more real quick up thu the 11th or 12th. When the events are still on the map inside of 120 hours, I'll start to get excited. But what a run for the 06Z GFS!


Yeah I saw that run and agree, it's been jumping on snow along the gulf coast in the long range for the last few weeks and then when it gets closer it doesn't materialize.

Yeah the 6Z GFS is bitterly cold for the eastern USA...like Bastardi has been saying is possible.
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Quoting IKE:


I agree that the chances this winter are as good as they've been in a long time. Maybe 2 in 100 vs. 1 in 100....lol.


Good news for ya. IF DFW has had THREE snow events in 1 month, bump up the odds to more like 25 out of 100. Dallas/Ft Worth receives 2.2" of snow a winter on average. In other words, you see black ice once and lil snowflakes, accumulating snow once every 3 yrs!
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Quoting Bordonaro:
Ike, you JUST might get your FL Panhandle snow!


Happy Dance Happy Dance :)
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Quoting IKE:


I'm wishcasting snow here in the Florida panhandle...haven't seen it in so long.

Just one time....please.


Yeah me too Ike. Too bad I got no faith in the GFS beyond 4 days or so. It shows three events for us in quick succession. Unfortunately the first one doesn't start untill the 7th of Jan then 2 more real quick up thu the 11th or 12th. When the events are still on the map inside of 120 hours, I'll start to get excited. But what a run for the 06Z GFS!
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1333. IKE
Quoting Bordonaro:
Ike, you JUST might get your FL Panhandle snow!


I agree that the chances this winter are as good as they've been in a long time. Maybe 2 in 100 vs. 1 in 100....lol.
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1332. IKE
Quoting Bordonaro:
Well, I must admit, I did request a nice SE US/S Plains snowstorm earlier this fall. It is true, be careful what you wish for, you just might get it all, and something you don't want!


Nice thing about snow here is it usually melts by the next day.
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Ike, you JUST might get your FL Panhandle snow

G R E A T!!!!!!!!! HERE WE GO AGAIN!!!!!!!

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Well, I must admit, I did request a nice SE US/S Plains snowstorm earlier this fall. It is true, be careful what you wish for, you just might get it all, and something you don't want!
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1329. IKE
Quoting Bordonaro:
Ike, I'll take your pleasant 47.8F, I've got a nice 30.1F for ya!!


Cloud cover kept me warmer. Colder air moves in tonight.

Tonight: Partly cloudy, with a low around 36. Calm wind becoming northwest around 5 mph.

Monday: Sunny, with a high near 50. North northwest wind between 5 and 10 mph.

Monday Night: Mostly clear, with a low around 31. Calm wind becoming northwest around 5 mph.
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1328. IKE
Quoting Bordonaro:


Fabulous, just fabulous!! Dallas-Ft Worth AP, TX a nippy 21F. Gotta love our Modiki El Nino. SO far this "unconventional" El Nino has created havoc from sea to shining sea. Record snow in MANY parts of the US, including our 3" snowstorm on Christmas Eve.


I'm wishcasting snow here in the Florida panhandle...haven't seen it in so long.

Just one time....please.
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Ike, I'll take your pleasant 47.8F, I've got a nice 30.1F for ya!!
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Quoting IKE:
From the Birmingham,AL. extended....

"A VERY COLD AIR MASS MOVES IN FOR FRIDAY
AND SATURDAY WITH THE POTENTIAL FOR THE COLDEST TEMPERATURES OF
THE SEASON THUS FAR.".....


I was looking at the forecast low temps for the 6-10 day period....Link

Jacksonville....29
Gainesville.....24
Tallahassee.....19
Dothan,AL.......21
Montgomery......17
Nashville........9
Baton Rouge.....21

Way up north.... -20 to -35...in Minnesota.





Fabulous, just fabulous!! Dallas-Ft Worth AP, TX a nippy 21F. Gotta love our Modiki El Nino. SO far this "unconventional" El Nino has created havoc from sea to shining sea. Record snow in MANY parts of the US, including our 3" snowstorm on Christmas Eve.
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1325. IKE
I've got a pleasant 47.8 outside...right now.
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1324. IKE
Quoting aquak9:
Jacksonville....29

"..and I'm hungry like the wolf.."


LOL....if the GFS extended verifies, the SE USA is in for a brutal 2 week period.

Cold and snowy periods.....as the mets say...stay tuned!
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1323. aquak9
Jacksonville....29

"..and I'm hungry like the wolf.."
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Hey Reedzone! I've never bothered to learn how to put images a stuff in here. I guess maybe its time huh?
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can anybody show the snow depth map for the 06Z GFS, it's showing lots of cold and snow as far south as Florida, not out of the question given the pattern.
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Great googly-ooglies! The 06Z GFS tries build a snow-pack way down into Florida. I'll believe it when I see it! What a run tho!!!
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1319. IKE
From the Birmingham,AL. extended....

"A VERY COLD AIR MASS MOVES IN FOR FRIDAY
AND SATURDAY WITH THE POTENTIAL FOR THE COLDEST TEMPERATURES OF
THE SEASON THUS FAR.".....


I was looking at the forecast low temps for the 6-10 day period....Link

Jacksonville....29
Gainesville.....24
Tallahassee.....19
Dothan,AL.......21
Montgomery......17
Nashville........9
Baton Rouge.....21

Way up north.... -20 to -35...in Minnesota.



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1316. RTLSNK
Morning everyone, 33*F in Macon, Georgia.

Flood Warning
Statement as of 3:22 AM EST on December 27, 2009


The Flood Warning continues for
the Ocmulgee River near Macon
* until Monday evening.
* At 230 am Sunday the stage was 20.4 feet... and slowly rising.
* Minor flooding is occurring... and minor flooding is forecast to
continue.
* Flood stage is 18 feet.
* The river will continue rising... reaching near 21.0 feet this
morning... then begin falling by this afternoon. The river will fall
below flood stage by tomorrow afternoon.
* Between 20 and 21 feet... minor flooding continues. Much of the
Macon Greenway Ocmulgee heritage trail is flooded north of the
fifth street bridge and agricultural flooding continues north and
south of Macon.


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1315. IKE
Eastern USA in the grips of winter on the 6Z GFS @ 168 hours....

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1314. unf97
Good morning to everyone on the WU blog.

I hope everyone enjoyed the Christmas holiday!

This morning, we have cloudy conditions, and I registered a temperature of 46 degrees here in North Jax. An shortwave/vorticity energy spoke rotating around the base of the big Midwest U.S. Low is moving over the northern GOM this morning. This system stayed far enough south and weak to not be a major problem It will keep clouds and a few spinkles/light rain showers today over my area. This weak disturbance will scoot thru here by tonight, and skies should clear out. Cool weather pattern is locked into place now for quite awhile.

As a matter of fact, ECMWF and the GFS both really sharpen a deep upper level trough over the eastern CONUS to start the new year 2010! If this verifies, some of the coldest air of the season will descend upon the Deep South. We have yet to reach the freezing mark here at my location in Jax. But, it looks that by this upcoming New Year's weekend, a freeze, maybe even a hard freeze, may be in the works.

I also will be interested in how the models will handle the next GOM Low pressure area that will emerge later this week. There is some potential of another "bomb" to again effect the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast US, similar to the one of a week ago.

Looks to be another interesting week of weather shaping up in this El Nino winter.

Have a great day everyone!
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Time for sleepies. Good night or good morning, all.
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Foo Fighters — Times Like These

Acoustic Version

"Official Video"

I am a one way motorway
I'm the one that drives away
Then follows you back home
I am a street light shining
I'm a wild light blinding bright
Burning off alone

It's times like these you learn to live again
It's times like these you give and give again
It's times like these you learn to love again
It's times like these time and time again

I am a new day rising
I'm a brand new sky
To hang the stars upon tonight
I am a little divided
Do I stay or run away
And leave it all behind?

It's times like these you learn to live again
It's times like these you give and give again
It's times like these you learn to love again
It's times like these time and time again
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So xcool has a new son, born on Christmas Day!
"Unto us a child is born!"

MAZELTOV, xcool!! L'Chaim!! (To Life!)

I hear Greyelf has some extra snow to send you, you snow-crazy Daddy!
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Quoting Orcasystems:


You are free to make any kind of remark you want... you have people in harms way right now, that give you that right.

You do not have the right... to arbitrarily strip someone of a title they earned, just because you disagree with something they say.

You... are a Moron.



Bingo!! Spot on, Orca. 'Bout time someone called out these type of comments- bravo.
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Link below to the NCEP update on the Christmas 2009 Storm. Dumped 40" of snow on Lead, SD.

Link
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Quoting Orcasystems:


3?... Me thinks you might have missed one :)
Mind you, I had to look it up on google.. all I know is its south of here...and warmer... and its no fair.

Flying to Mexico on the 13th for a week to defrost.



From TX, heading east you go through Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and then you drive into the Florida Pandhandle.
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Quoting Bordonaro:


PSST! Orca, you missed! Florida is 3 states over. November '09 averaged about 5F above normal. And, December '09 is averaging about 4F below normal, shooting for 6F below normal. We are spoiled here, it's usually 55-60F during the day this time of year.


3?... Me thinks you might have missed one :)
Mind you, I had to look it up on google.. all I know is its south of here...and warmer... and its no fair.

Flying to Mexico on the 13th for a week to defrost.

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Sure. I've got a fresh 5' drift that just told me it wants to travel. I'd send it all if I could

Thanks for the offer - pls send when you can!..lol
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Quoting Orcasystems:
Snow..Texas??
My mistake...I was aiming at Florida


PSST! Orca, you missed! Florida is 3 states over. November '09 averaged about 5F above normal. And, December '09 is averaging about 4F below normal, shooting for 6F below normal. We are spoiled here, it's usually 55-60F during the day this time of year.
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The DFW, TX Area Forecast Discussion as of 11:03PM CST still indicates that parts of North Central TX are going to see snow/sleet changing to rain, starting Tuesday into Wednesday of this coming week. See below:

UPDATE...
HAVE MADE SOME CHANGES TO SKY CONDITIONS AND TEMPS FOR TONIGHT.
OTHER MINOR MAX/MIN ADJUSTMENTS MADE MONDAY THROUGH THURSDAY.

TONIGHTS NAM AND THIS MORNINGS GFS AND ECMWF CONTINUE TO DEPICT
INCREASING MOISTURE MONDAY INTO TUESDAY FROM THE SOUTHWEST AS
UPPER TROUGH APPROACHES. CURRENTLY...FORECAST SOUNDINGS ARE COLDER
ENOUGH FOR MOSTLY SNOW TUESDAY OVER THE NORTHWEST HALF... AND A
WINTRY MIX ELSEWHERE. AS WE MOVE INTO TUESDAY NIGHT...THE LOWER
ATMOSPHERE WARMS ABOVE FREEZING OVER THE SOUTH...RESULTING IN A
TRANSITION TO ALL RAIN. WINTRY MIX CONTINUES OVER THE NORTH. AS
NEW MODEL INFORMATION ROLLS IN OVER THE NEXT 48 HOURS...WE WILL BE
RE-EVALUATING THE TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE UP TO 15000 FEET TO
DETERMINE WHERE THE DIVIDING LINE BETWEEN LIQUID AND A MIX WILL
BE. 75

So, for the next 7 days, we will have temps averaging 7-9F below normal. If anyone has some warmer weather to spare, please send it to North Texas. Thanks!!
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Snow..Texas??
My mistake...I was aiming at Florida
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Quoting GlobalWarmingFallacy:
My post to the former Dr. Masters:



Dr. Masters has made the Weather Underground website possible. The knowledge I have learned in the short 4 months I have been here is invaluable to me and the many other people who share their views from around the world. I do not like discussing climate change, because of the continual, incessant arguments. We have one Earth, it makes great sense to use our resources wisely. The atmosphere and the oceans have a way to balance things out. IF we humans are the cause and IF we humans PUSH the climate to change, the ocean currents and climate as we know it will change, drastically.

Dr Masters opinions are his own, you can either agree or disagree. Dr Masters has a PHD, noone can take that from him. And you are a jackass!!
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Quoting GlobalWarmingFallacy:
My post to the former Dr. Masters:


You are free to make any kind of remark you want... you have people in harms way right now, that give you that right.

You do not have the right... to arbitrarily strip someone of a title they earned, just because you disagree with something they say.

You... are a Moron.

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1300. Greyelf
Quoting AllyBama:
Could somebody please send me some snow? We keep getting wetter and colder here - just not at the same time but may run out of both soon!..lol


Sure. I've got a fresh 5' drift that just told me it wants to travel. I'd send it all if I could.
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1298. Patrap
Congratulation's on the Little one's timely arrival xcool.



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Quoting xcool:
hi ALL.MY SON WAS born on xmas

Well, congratulations...poor kid. (I know a number of people that have birthdays among the holidays. Tough to have a proper birthday party...)
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1296. xcool
thank alot
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Congrats xcool!
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1294. xcool
hi ALL.MY SON WAS born on xmas
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Interesting...I'll report back about the color of the grass in the park, in a couple days. :)
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Quoting Bordonaro:


Snow is an amazing insulator. The cold snow kept the ground just warm enough for grass to grow, isn't that special! You must have had alot of warm December weather before the big storm struck. The snow is porous enough to let the grass breathe underneath the former 2' snowpack.

Could be that the 'green' was preserved by the cold in the snow, like an icepack and the grass will turn brown in the next day or two as the grass blades deteriorate while it is warmer.
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6PM CST**72HR**00Z NAM Forecast Run 850MB Temps/6 hr Precip***
Looks like N TX is going to be under the gun for more snow &/or sleet:

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Magma building up in Philippines' Mayon volcano
Bullit Marquez, Associated Press Writer 1 hr 4 mins ago

Link

LEGAZPI, Philippines – Fewer earthquakes have been recorded in the Philippines' lava-spilling Mayon volcano, but magma continues to build up inside and any lull in activity could be followed by a bigger eruption, scientists said Saturday.

A hazardous eruption remains possible within days, and residents who live near the volcano's slopes should not be misled into leaving the evacuation centers, where they spent Christmas, and venturing back to their homes, volcanologist Ed Laguerta warned.
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The Dallas-Ft Worth Area Forecast Discussion updated at 5:20PM CST 12-26-09. Amazing, they're calling for MORE wintry precip for next Tuesday into Wednesday, Modiki El Nino is at it again:


.LONG TERM/TUES AND BEYOND/...
ALL MED RANGE MODELS BEGIN LIFTING SRN STREAM SHORTWAVE DISTURBANCE
ACROSS MEXICO/W TX BIG BEND BY 12Z/DAYBREAK TUES...BEFORE DEVELOPING
A TX COASTAL DISTURBANCE JUST EAST OF BROWNSVILLE/CORPUS CHRISTI BY
TUES EVENING. MEANWHILE...LIFT AND COOLING OF LAYER BELOW 700 MB
LIKELY TO RESULT IN WET-BULB COOLING AND HAVE MAINTAINED MORE OF A
WINTRY MIXTURE OF RAIN/SLEET/SNOW THROUGH THE AFTERNOON AND EVENING
ACROSS NW HALF OF NORTH TEXAS. SOME DIFFERENCES ON MOISTURE AND
DEPTH OF COLD AIR...BUT ENOUGH CONFIDENCE TO CONTINUE WINTRY MIX
THROUGH TUES NIGHT TIME FRAME PER AVERAGE THICKNESSES VALUES OF
SEVERAL MODELS.

IT APPEARS DEEPER COLD AIR SHUNTS NORTH OF THE BORDER MOSTLY ON
WEDNESDAY...BUT A LITTLE WEARY OF THE COLUMN WARMING FULLY TO ABOVE
FREEZING. FOR NOW...WILL KEEP WEDNESDAY ALL RAIN...BUT AREAS NORTH
OF I-20 WILL NEED TO BE WATCHED FOR ANY COLD AIR INTRUSIONS BEHIND
DEPARTING COASTAL TROUGH. WE MAY GO AHEAD AND ISSUE A SPECIAL WX
STATEMENT/SPS TO FOREWARN OF THE POTENTIAL AND UNCERTAINTY ON
PRECIPITATION TYPE TUES/TUES NIGHT...AS MED RANGE MODELS APPEAR TO
AGREE ON TIMING OF SYSTEM AND DEVELOPMENT. IF NOT...WE`LL DEFINITELY
ENHANCE HAZARDOUS WX OUTLOOK.

BROAD CENTRAL CONUS UPPER TROUGH STAYS BEHIND DEPARTING SFC SYSTEM
MAINTAINING A COLD FORECAST INTO NEXT WEEKEND. FEEL LOW LEVELS
SHOULD DRY OUT ENOUGH BY WED NIGHT/THURSDAY/BEYOND FOR CONTINUED DRY
FORECAST WITH EVENTUAL NW FLOW ALOFT OVER AREA. MODELS DO DIVERGE FOR
WEEKEND FORECAST AND WILL KEEP DRY AS WELL.
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Quoting AwakeInMaryland:
Hmmm, think I'd rather have snow again.
Very odd things here...yesterday the snow was still between our ankles and knees...had to walk on trampled snow paths in field for our little dogs. Today the snow is almost all gone...which explains the flood warnings...and the grass that was underneath is very green and there's even some new growth. It's almost January...dead of winter!


Snow is an amazing insulator. The cold snow kept the ground just warm enough for grass to grow, isn't that special! You must have had alot of warm December weather before the big storm struck. The snow is porous enough to let the grass breathe underneath the former 2' snowpack.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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