A flight through Hurricane Hugo, remembered 20 years later

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:21 PM GMT on September 15, 2009

Share this Blog
1
+

The remains of Hurricane Fred continue to generate sporadic bursts of heavy thunderstorm activity over the middle Atlantic Ocean. These thunderstorms were generating winds up to 35 mph, according to this morning's QuikSCAT pass. Dry air and high wind shear of 20 - 25 knots today and Wednesday will continue to prevent regeneration of Fred. By Thursday, the chances for regeneration of Fred increase, since wind shear near Fred's remains will fall below 20 knots. However, continued high wind shear and dry air over the next two days will further disrupt the remains of Fred, and there may not be enough left of the storm to regenerate from by the time the wind shear drops. The NOGAPS model forecasts that Fred could regenerate by Sunday, when the remains of the storm will be approaching the Bahama Islands.

Satellite imagery shows a small circulation associated with a tropical wave about 200 miles west of the Cape Verdes Islands. Heavy thunderstorms activity has increased in this region over the past day. However, wind shear is near 20 knots, which is marginal for development, and shear will increase to near 30 knots as the wave progresses west-northwest into a band of high wind shear that lies to its north. It is unlikely that this wave can develop into a tropical depression this week, and NHC is giving it a low (less than 30% chance) of developing into a tropical depression by Thursday.

Tropical storm development is possible this week along a frontal zone stretching from the Bahamas northeastward. Anything that develops may end up being extratropical in nature, and would likely move northeastward out to sea.

The GFS model is predicting development of a new tropical wave coming off the coast of Africa early next week.


Figure 1. The remains of Hurricane Fred (left) appears as a swirl of low-level clouds with a clump of heavy thunderstorm activity on the northwest side. A tropical wave is 200 miles west of the Cape Verdes Islands (right), off the coast of Africa. This wave is probably under too much wind shear to develop.

A flight through Hurricane Hugo, remembered 20 years later
The events of September 15, 1989, have affected me more deeply than those of any other day in my life. The fifteen members of our crew very nearly became the first of Hurricane Hugo's many victims, and I am still grappling twenty years later with the emotional fallout from the experience. (If you are troubled by a traumatic experience, you may want to consider EMDR therapy, which I found to be helpful). The process of writing the story of that flight was also very therapeutic, and I worked intermittently for six years on the story while I was working towards my Ph.D. For those of you who haven't read it, do so! I worked very hard on it, and it is a remarkable story.


Figure 2. GOES visible satellite image of Hurricane Hugo taken on September 15, 1989. Image credit: Google Earth rendition of the NOAA HURSAT data base.

The Hurricane Hunters often carry reporters and camera crews on their flights, and the unlucky soul on our flight through Hurricane Hugo was young Janice Griffith of the Barbados Sun newspaper. Her account:

Horror of Hugo's Eye
TO a young reporter, with perhaps more journalistic curiosity than is good for her, it seemed a chance for a good story. To others, who were quick to tell me so, a flight into the centre of a powerful and dangerous hurricane was "sheer madness".

In the end, my journey Friday on a "Hurricane Hunter" aircraft with a hardened, professional crew was nerve-shattering, awesome, and unforgettable. When we limped back into Grantley Adams International after a beating from nature's fury in the form of Hurricane Hugo, I had my story. But I also had to agree that I must have been crazy to have gone in the first place.

Not that I wasn't forewarned.

You sure you want to go?" Dr. James McFadden, manager of the airborne science programmes of the United States Department of Commerce and head of the team asked when I raised the subject following their arrival from their Miami base on Thursday night. "It can be a very dangerous trip".

I wasn't fazed. After all, I'd flown a lot on commercial aircraft, from LIAT to large jumbo jets, and these hurricane hunter were experts who, I was assured, had been in the business of tracking storms in the Atlantic and Caribbean for a dozen years or more. Some had even been at it for 18.

They'd all been through and gone into the eyes of dozens of hurricanes and come back to tell the tale. Not even apprehensive as I, the only woman along with 10 men, boarded just before noon Friday and was shown to one of the four seats in the cockpit, just behind pilot Gerry McKim.

No hostess coming through with complimentary drinks here--or clicking on a seat belt. I was harnessed in like an infant in the rear seat of a car, waist and shoulders securely strapped. "Just in case", I was told.

While I observed, wide-eyed, everyone went about his business with the facility of someone who has done it all before a hundred times over--the pilot and co-pilot, Lowell Genzlinger, the flight engineer, the navigator, the weather experts. Everyone.

Calming effect
Their efficiency had a calming effect and the first half-hour or so, as we headed northeast to investigate and report on the details of Hugo's size and power, was no rougher than any commercial flight I've been on.

But then the sky began to close in with heavy, dark clouds and the 14-year old turboprop plane began to take the kind of buffeting it must have done several times during similar sorties.

The crew treated it all as a matter of course, getting on with their duties, checking radar and charts, communicating their information to headquarters in Miami, doing the other chores that seemed to keep everyone busy.

My notebook tells me we caught up with Hugo at 1:28 pm. For the next hour or so, I wondered why we ever tried--and I got the distinct impression almost everyone aboard wondered that too.

We were surrounded by clouds a dark gray, almost blue, color. The rain pelted down on the fuselage with an intensity that was deafening, like torrential rain on a galvanized roof and with a force that, it was later discovered, burst a small hole in the roof of the fuselage. When it was visible, the sea was almost black, like bubbling tar.

The computer print-out that had registered the wind speed from the time we took off peaked at 185 mph around this time.

We entered the eye--the area of low pressure that is completely calm and marks the centre of the hurricane--at an altitude of about 5,000 feet. Suddenly, my stomach seemed to become detached from my body as as the place dropped, I was told later, to 1,500 feet.

All hell seemed to break loose around and back of me. Briefcases, cups, soda-cans, books, anything unsecured came clattering down. The air conditioning shut down as did the radar and the weather computer. I just gripped the nearest arm and held on for dear life, realizing now why we had all been strapped in so tightly.

"That's unusual", flight engineer Steve Wade said when McKim and Genzlinger got back control of their plane. His attempt at sounding cool was father futile.

Dr. McFadden, a stocky man with gray beard and spectacles, came through, checking on us. He was visibly shaken.

"Everyone alright?" he inquired. We were but his face mirrored his concern when he told me: "This is the worst experience in all of our years going into a hurricane".

Soon there was to be even more. It was discovered that engine No. 3--the near right-side--had conked out. The pilots reported it was on fire and they had to shut it down. Another one was working but not at full capacity.

My life, I knew, rested in the skilled and experienced hands, and heads, of those in control of this wonderful piece of machinery. But, to tell the truth, I was never overcome by fear or panic. Somehow, I sensed all would be well.

Perhaps if I'd known more it would have been different, for we still had to find our way back out of the eye, to penetrate the wall again, and to gain elevation. To do that, on reduced power, meant jettisoning 7,000 of our 10,000 pounds of fuel to lighten the load and circling for an eternal hour while this was done.

Finally, a "weak spot" was found in the cloud formation and we could make an exit from the prison of the eye where we had been trapped for a frightening hour. Around us, winds were now registering 155 knots, and the plane was still being hammered by the weather.

But we were out of the eye and Dr. McFadden, in jubilant relief, exclaimed: "Let's get out of here". He echoed the feeling of everyone aboard.

The system engineer, Schricker ("that's it, don't worry about the first name", he said when I pressed) was more explicit. "I've been flying for 18 years and I don't think I want to fly again," he said.

As we got out of Hugo's clutches and left him to make his way towards the eastern Caribbean, Dr. McFadden put the experience in perspective for me. "You didn't really know what you went through," he said as we headed back to Grantley Adams, itching to back on Terra Firma. "We almost didn't get out of the eye. We almost didn't make it. It was a serious situation".

I believed him--and couldn't help wonder at the bravery of these men who so frequently risk their lives so that others may be saved from the destruction of the storms that head across the Atlantic annually between June and November.

They were working at Grantley Adams yesterday on getting that engine back into shape so that they could be ready the next time another one comes along.

They must be crazy!


Figure 3. An account of the September 15, 1989 flight through Hurricane Hugo posted by reporter Janice Griffith in the Barbados Sun newspaper.

Comments on Janice's story
The rain didn't really punch a hole the fuselage of our airplane as Janice reported. Also, we penetrated the eyewall at 1,500 feet, and dropped to 880 feet during the extreme turbulence in the eyewall. Other than that, Janice has the facts pretty well in hand, particularly the "They must be crazy!" part. Three of us--myself, radio operator Tom Nunn, and electronic engineer Terry Schricker--never flew again on a hurricane hunter mission. However, four members of that flight--Hurricane Field Program Manager Dr. Jim McFadden, Chief Systems Engineer Alan Goldstein, Navigator (now flight meteorologist) Sean White, and the director of NOAA's Hurricane Research Division, Frank Marks--continue to fly into hurricanes to this day.

I caught up with Janice Griffith via email last year, when I invited her to a "Hurricane Hugo survivors luncheon" for the twelve people from that flight who are still alive (alas, radio operator Tom Nunn, electronic engineer Neil Rain, and chief scientist Dr. Bob Burpee have passed on). Six of us got together at a hurricane conference in Orlando. Janice is still working as a reporter in Barbados, and couldn't make it. Her email to me:

"Nice Hearing from you.
Well after that trip into the eye of Hurricane Hugo,
I certainly will not be going on another.
We almost lost our lives.
And whenever I think about it...I just get some shivers".

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 368 - 318

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31Blog Index

Quoting Hurricane009:
Accuweather shows that when the cold front comes though SE NC that we will have highs in th elow 70's and lows in the upper to 40's to mid 50's


Can you get on Tropics Chat?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hurricane Kate, 11-15-11-23 1985:



She's an outlier, but regardless, it's possible for strong storms as late as the end of November
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting BioWeather:
Without a mic, no doubt. Emerald Isle is a popular SC weekend hideaway! Is that where you are? If so, you don't need hurricanes either. There have already been enough close calls this year.


Yes have had a place here about 20yrs
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hurricane23:
TPC again running models on ex fred as conditions could become somewhat favorable for redevelopment.Might have to watch this little sucker.



Those BAMM runs show that a ridge of high pressure will be developing over Fred, shows that us Floridians may want to eye it for now. Conditions have improved and satellite proves that also.
Member Since: July 1, 2008 Posts: 13 Comments: 7340
Quoting tornadodude:


fredex


FredEx delivers to all places, including the Carolinas and even places that are 50% below sea level
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 24 Comments: 8200
Quoting watcher123:


Neo-ExFred...re-organizing


fredex
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 24 Comments: 8200
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
not the end but as we progress into late sept early oct and the possible strong cold fronts dropping down across se us any thing thats does pop up will be close to home and will move in an easterly or ne track away from conus out over open atlantic also normal dev areas are gom nw carb area once the cv season is about done as we get into first week of oct
Look at Hazel track it wasnt homegrown. But i understand some of what you are saying.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting will40:
Yea i even heard them hollering up here on Emerald Isle lol
Without a mic, no doubt. Emerald Isle is a popular SC weekend hideaway! Is that where you are? If so, you don't need hurricanes either. There have already been enough close calls this year.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting will40:
Anyone that thinks cold fronts will be the end of the hurricane season didnt witness the rath of Hurricane Hazel.The temp was in the 50,s here in NC when she came through
not the end but as we progress into late sept early oct and the possible strong cold fronts dropping down across se us any thing thats does pop up will be close to home and will move in an easterly or ne track away from conus out over open atlantic also normal dev areas are gom nw carb area once the cv season is about done as we get into first week of oct
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 168 Comments: 53285
TPC again running models on ex fred as conditions could become somewhat favorable for redevelopment.Might have to watch this little sucker.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting flsky:


Did you say you're in college? My, my, the state of education these days....


He has always struck me as being nothing more than a freshman in High School. He's not in College, I assure you.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Yea i even heard them hollering up here on Emerald Isle lol
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting will40:
Its not quiet during the hollering contest lmao
OMG! You've heard of it? I went one time. It was a "hoot" - or would that be a "holler"? I'm still learnin' the lingo.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good afternoon everyone...hope all is going well..for a Tuesday~ Interesting rotation west of the leewards and south of PR? http://www.goes.noaa.gov/HURRLOOPS/huirloop.html

Stay well....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting BioWeather:
Spivey's Corner. About 80 miles in NW of Willmington. VERY rural. But peaceful and quiet. The weather is wonderful. Mid 80's today as a high but the mornings and evenings are perfect. I love it up here. Don't want any hurricanes up here, though!
Its not quiet during the hollering contest lmao
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting BioWeather:
Spivey's Corner. About 80 miles in NW of Willmington. VERY rural. But peaceful and quiet. The weather is wonderful. Mid 80's today as a high but the mornings and evenings are perfect. I love it up here. Don't want any hurricanes up here, though!


oh ok, that sounds nice, my parents live in Hickory
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 24 Comments: 8200
Quoting tornadodude:


hey, my parents live in NC, what part?
Spivey's Corner. About 80 miles in NW of Willmington. VERY rural. But peaceful and quiet. The weather is wonderful. Mid 80's today as a high but the mornings and evenings are perfect. I love it up here. Don't want any hurricanes up here, though!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting IKE:


Agree...and I know one that said it was over and wouldn't be back on here. The next day he was on here posting again...lol.


ok come one, you know the season is over ;)
jk
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 24 Comments: 8200
342. IKE
Quoting will40:
Was just throwing that out there guys. There have been some quotes that it was over. I could bring up the quotes but im not into that. Was just giving my view.


Agree...and I know one that said it was over and wouldn't be back on here. The next day he was on here posting again...lol.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting will40:
Was just throwing that out there guys. There have been some quotes that it was over. I could bring up the quotes but im not into that. Was just giving my view.


Well when you add Opal in 1995, Wilma in 2005 and countless others that have occurred in El Nino, La Nina and Neutral seasons, it is pretty obvious that the 1st cold front DOES NOT shut down the season. Anyone who thinks that is misinformed or just trying to get a reaction.
Quoting Hurricane009:
Good Afternoon. Actually got to get on today. Had a little 24 hour flu type thing. Temperature up to 101, stopped up nose, and horrible cough. Im all better now :). ANything threatening happening in the tropics besides the 2nd strongest tropical system in the world.


First we passing computer viruses around the blog now the flu, LOL. Hope your feeling better. (reason I say that is because a blogger has the swine flu and posted about it yesterday.)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting BioWeather:
Hi Jupiter! I'm the one that recognized your background in your photo. How ya doin? I moved to NC since we last talked.


hey, my parents live in NC, what part?
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 24 Comments: 8200
Quoting JupiterFL:


Man, I feel stupid.
I always thought the flap went in the front.
Hi Jupiter! I'm the one that recognized your background in your photo. How ya doin? I moved to NC since we last talked.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Was just throwing that out there guys. There have been some quotes that it was over. I could bring up the quotes but im not into that. Was just giving my view.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
336. IKE
Quoting btwntx08:

first front 21st or 22nd then the stronger one on the 25th just like kog posted


Look at the 12Z ECMWF. You can see what their talking about.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
spiderman jammies with or w/o flap...must be absolutely nothing to track eh? lol
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting tornadodude:


well where do you live specifically?

(spiderman long johns are in dude)
That's what I'm sayin'.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting JupiterFL:


Man, I feel stupid.
I always thought the flap went in the front.


Ouch! Now there's an image!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Floodman:


Totally in, dude...now, the drop flap is optional


I agree
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 24 Comments: 8200
Quoting tornadodude:


well where do you live specifically?

(spiderman long johns are in dude)


Totally in, dude...now, the drop flap is optional
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Great Britain keeps getting all our fish storms and Choi-Wan goes to Alaska according to ECMWF. I don't think cold has too much bearing this year.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting reedzone:
I'm still looking for 2-3 more storms to form from now till December. Sorry, just a prediction of mine, I don't see any cold front "shutting down" the season. Stranger things have happened, storms can form on the end of cold fronts if conditions are right.


Exactly so; anyone who thinks the season is over before mid to late November is pretty much a fool, regardless of the conditions here in the CONUS
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Afternoon all...
Cool story Doc...wow, what an experience.

Okay, so I need a pressure washer for all of the mold growning outside of the house from the rain! Enough already :)

What is this cold air you speak of, in this blog here?


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting eddye:
mid to upper 70 yeah right


well where do you live specifically?

(spiderman long johns are in dude)
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 24 Comments: 8200
324. IKE
Quoting will40:
Anyone that thinks cold fronts will be the end of the hurricane season didnt witness the rath of Hurricane Hazel.The temp was in the 50,s here in NC when she came through


I won't say it's over with for my area...Florida panhandle. But I will say if this pattern change develops, the odds of being hit in my area the rest of the 2009 season with a hurricane, are greatly diminished.

Could it still happen after? Yes. But the odds are low. GOM water temps will start cooling off too.

As far as peninsula Florida. The season rocks on through October and November.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I'm still looking for 2-3 more storms to form from now till December. Sorry, just a prediction of mine, I don't see any cold front "shutting down" the season. Stranger things have happened, storms can form on the end of cold fronts if conditions are right.
Member Since: July 1, 2008 Posts: 13 Comments: 7340
321. eddye
mid to upper 70 yeah right
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Anyone that thinks cold fronts will be the end of the hurricane season didnt witness the rath of Hurricane Hazel.The temp was in the 50,s here in NC when she came through
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting eddye:
how cold tempature wise and i dont have that im 19
Well get some! I'm (swallows hard) over 19 and I have them! Come in handy in North Carolina!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 368 - 318

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Partly Cloudy
73 °F
Partly Cloudy