A flight through Hurricane Hugo, remembered 20 years later

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:21 PM GMT on September 15, 2009

Share this Blog
1
+

The remains of Hurricane Fred continue to generate sporadic bursts of heavy thunderstorm activity over the middle Atlantic Ocean. These thunderstorms were generating winds up to 35 mph, according to this morning's QuikSCAT pass. Dry air and high wind shear of 20 - 25 knots today and Wednesday will continue to prevent regeneration of Fred. By Thursday, the chances for regeneration of Fred increase, since wind shear near Fred's remains will fall below 20 knots. However, continued high wind shear and dry air over the next two days will further disrupt the remains of Fred, and there may not be enough left of the storm to regenerate from by the time the wind shear drops. The NOGAPS model forecasts that Fred could regenerate by Sunday, when the remains of the storm will be approaching the Bahama Islands.

Satellite imagery shows a small circulation associated with a tropical wave about 200 miles west of the Cape Verdes Islands. Heavy thunderstorms activity has increased in this region over the past day. However, wind shear is near 20 knots, which is marginal for development, and shear will increase to near 30 knots as the wave progresses west-northwest into a band of high wind shear that lies to its north. It is unlikely that this wave can develop into a tropical depression this week, and NHC is giving it a low (less than 30% chance) of developing into a tropical depression by Thursday.

Tropical storm development is possible this week along a frontal zone stretching from the Bahamas northeastward. Anything that develops may end up being extratropical in nature, and would likely move northeastward out to sea.

The GFS model is predicting development of a new tropical wave coming off the coast of Africa early next week.


Figure 1. The remains of Hurricane Fred (left) appears as a swirl of low-level clouds with a clump of heavy thunderstorm activity on the northwest side. A tropical wave is 200 miles west of the Cape Verdes Islands (right), off the coast of Africa. This wave is probably under too much wind shear to develop.

A flight through Hurricane Hugo, remembered 20 years later
The events of September 15, 1989, have affected me more deeply than those of any other day in my life. The fifteen members of our crew very nearly became the first of Hurricane Hugo's many victims, and I am still grappling twenty years later with the emotional fallout from the experience. (If you are troubled by a traumatic experience, you may want to consider EMDR therapy, which I found to be helpful). The process of writing the story of that flight was also very therapeutic, and I worked intermittently for six years on the story while I was working towards my Ph.D. For those of you who haven't read it, do so! I worked very hard on it, and it is a remarkable story.


Figure 2. GOES visible satellite image of Hurricane Hugo taken on September 15, 1989. Image credit: Google Earth rendition of the NOAA HURSAT data base.

The Hurricane Hunters often carry reporters and camera crews on their flights, and the unlucky soul on our flight through Hurricane Hugo was young Janice Griffith of the Barbados Sun newspaper. Her account:

Horror of Hugo's Eye
TO a young reporter, with perhaps more journalistic curiosity than is good for her, it seemed a chance for a good story. To others, who were quick to tell me so, a flight into the centre of a powerful and dangerous hurricane was "sheer madness".

In the end, my journey Friday on a "Hurricane Hunter" aircraft with a hardened, professional crew was nerve-shattering, awesome, and unforgettable. When we limped back into Grantley Adams International after a beating from nature's fury in the form of Hurricane Hugo, I had my story. But I also had to agree that I must have been crazy to have gone in the first place.

Not that I wasn't forewarned.

You sure you want to go?" Dr. James McFadden, manager of the airborne science programmes of the United States Department of Commerce and head of the team asked when I raised the subject following their arrival from their Miami base on Thursday night. "It can be a very dangerous trip".

I wasn't fazed. After all, I'd flown a lot on commercial aircraft, from LIAT to large jumbo jets, and these hurricane hunter were experts who, I was assured, had been in the business of tracking storms in the Atlantic and Caribbean for a dozen years or more. Some had even been at it for 18.

They'd all been through and gone into the eyes of dozens of hurricanes and come back to tell the tale. Not even apprehensive as I, the only woman along with 10 men, boarded just before noon Friday and was shown to one of the four seats in the cockpit, just behind pilot Gerry McKim.

No hostess coming through with complimentary drinks here--or clicking on a seat belt. I was harnessed in like an infant in the rear seat of a car, waist and shoulders securely strapped. "Just in case", I was told.

While I observed, wide-eyed, everyone went about his business with the facility of someone who has done it all before a hundred times over--the pilot and co-pilot, Lowell Genzlinger, the flight engineer, the navigator, the weather experts. Everyone.

Calming effect
Their efficiency had a calming effect and the first half-hour or so, as we headed northeast to investigate and report on the details of Hugo's size and power, was no rougher than any commercial flight I've been on.

But then the sky began to close in with heavy, dark clouds and the 14-year old turboprop plane began to take the kind of buffeting it must have done several times during similar sorties.

The crew treated it all as a matter of course, getting on with their duties, checking radar and charts, communicating their information to headquarters in Miami, doing the other chores that seemed to keep everyone busy.

My notebook tells me we caught up with Hugo at 1:28 pm. For the next hour or so, I wondered why we ever tried--and I got the distinct impression almost everyone aboard wondered that too.

We were surrounded by clouds a dark gray, almost blue, color. The rain pelted down on the fuselage with an intensity that was deafening, like torrential rain on a galvanized roof and with a force that, it was later discovered, burst a small hole in the roof of the fuselage. When it was visible, the sea was almost black, like bubbling tar.

The computer print-out that had registered the wind speed from the time we took off peaked at 185 mph around this time.

We entered the eye--the area of low pressure that is completely calm and marks the centre of the hurricane--at an altitude of about 5,000 feet. Suddenly, my stomach seemed to become detached from my body as as the place dropped, I was told later, to 1,500 feet.

All hell seemed to break loose around and back of me. Briefcases, cups, soda-cans, books, anything unsecured came clattering down. The air conditioning shut down as did the radar and the weather computer. I just gripped the nearest arm and held on for dear life, realizing now why we had all been strapped in so tightly.

"That's unusual", flight engineer Steve Wade said when McKim and Genzlinger got back control of their plane. His attempt at sounding cool was father futile.

Dr. McFadden, a stocky man with gray beard and spectacles, came through, checking on us. He was visibly shaken.

"Everyone alright?" he inquired. We were but his face mirrored his concern when he told me: "This is the worst experience in all of our years going into a hurricane".

Soon there was to be even more. It was discovered that engine No. 3--the near right-side--had conked out. The pilots reported it was on fire and they had to shut it down. Another one was working but not at full capacity.

My life, I knew, rested in the skilled and experienced hands, and heads, of those in control of this wonderful piece of machinery. But, to tell the truth, I was never overcome by fear or panic. Somehow, I sensed all would be well.

Perhaps if I'd known more it would have been different, for we still had to find our way back out of the eye, to penetrate the wall again, and to gain elevation. To do that, on reduced power, meant jettisoning 7,000 of our 10,000 pounds of fuel to lighten the load and circling for an eternal hour while this was done.

Finally, a "weak spot" was found in the cloud formation and we could make an exit from the prison of the eye where we had been trapped for a frightening hour. Around us, winds were now registering 155 knots, and the plane was still being hammered by the weather.

But we were out of the eye and Dr. McFadden, in jubilant relief, exclaimed: "Let's get out of here". He echoed the feeling of everyone aboard.

The system engineer, Schricker ("that's it, don't worry about the first name", he said when I pressed) was more explicit. "I've been flying for 18 years and I don't think I want to fly again," he said.

As we got out of Hugo's clutches and left him to make his way towards the eastern Caribbean, Dr. McFadden put the experience in perspective for me. "You didn't really know what you went through," he said as we headed back to Grantley Adams, itching to back on Terra Firma. "We almost didn't get out of the eye. We almost didn't make it. It was a serious situation".

I believed him--and couldn't help wonder at the bravery of these men who so frequently risk their lives so that others may be saved from the destruction of the storms that head across the Atlantic annually between June and November.

They were working at Grantley Adams yesterday on getting that engine back into shape so that they could be ready the next time another one comes along.

They must be crazy!


Figure 3. An account of the September 15, 1989 flight through Hurricane Hugo posted by reporter Janice Griffith in the Barbados Sun newspaper.

Comments on Janice's story
The rain didn't really punch a hole the fuselage of our airplane as Janice reported. Also, we penetrated the eyewall at 1,500 feet, and dropped to 880 feet during the extreme turbulence in the eyewall. Other than that, Janice has the facts pretty well in hand, particularly the "They must be crazy!" part. Three of us--myself, radio operator Tom Nunn, and electronic engineer Terry Schricker--never flew again on a hurricane hunter mission. However, four members of that flight--Hurricane Field Program Manager Dr. Jim McFadden, Chief Systems Engineer Alan Goldstein, Navigator (now flight meteorologist) Sean White, and the director of NOAA's Hurricane Research Division, Frank Marks--continue to fly into hurricanes to this day.

I caught up with Janice Griffith via email last year, when I invited her to a "Hurricane Hugo survivors luncheon" for the twelve people from that flight who are still alive (alas, radio operator Tom Nunn, electronic engineer Neil Rain, and chief scientist Dr. Bob Burpee have passed on). Six of us got together at a hurricane conference in Orlando. Janice is still working as a reporter in Barbados, and couldn't make it. Her email to me:

"Nice Hearing from you.
Well after that trip into the eye of Hurricane Hugo,
I certainly will not be going on another.
We almost lost our lives.
And whenever I think about it...I just get some shivers".

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 1018 - 968

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31Blog Index

Quoting watcher123:
Tornadodude:

That really isn't hard math. I thought you would be doing higher order differentials or something like that.



haha it can be tough, but wait till he gets into multiple variable integrals, that will be tons of fun :D
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1017. Dakster
Quoting alaina1085:


Well I landed in summer school for Algebra in high school, hahaha. Im horrible in math/science. Which is why I stick to more graphic design/arts stuff.
Quoting tornadodude:


no :( the highest math I had was algebra 2, and science was an Earth and Astronomy class


I am beginning to understand your frustration now.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting watcher123:
Tornadodude:

That really isn't hard math. I thought you would be doing higher order differentials or something like that.


I know its not really "hard" just the instructions arent very clear
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1015. Dakster
Quoting Stormchaser2007:


I've never begun to believe it.

Just the thought makes me laugh.


I know, FIU does have admission standards.

They are low, but they have standards.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Storm W, You are up late. Are you working on an update for us ?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1012. JLPR
Quoting BurnedAfterPosting:


love how the GFS has that large ridge to the north of that system, yet if you continue on in the run it takes that system straight north into the ridge

not buying that


The GFS has been very persistent with this system and it is taking it more and more west with each run
so possible Grace could end up in land somewhere =S gotta watch that TW coming off Africa very closely
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 36 Comments: 5223
Quoting tornadodude:


no :( the highest math I had was algebra 2, and science was an Earth and Astronomy class


wow really algebra 2? really just personal message me im in calculus ill try and help as much as possible :)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Wow, what a sight....

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ElConando:
Nado dude: did you take AP phsyics?


no :( the highest math I had was algebra 2, and science was an Earth and Astronomy class
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting JLPR:
Also in the 18z GFS the islands have a close call with a possible storm
but then it turns it north right in front of them xD wheew lol



I want to see what does it do at the 00z GFS :)


love how the GFS has that large ridge to the north of that system, yet if you continue on in the run it takes that system straight north into the ridge

not buying that
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting tornadodude:


yeah, I really think I should have taken calc in high school :(


Well I landed in summer school for Algebra in high school, hahaha. Im horrible in math/science. Which is why I stick to more graphic design/arts stuff.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Nado dude: did you take AP phsyics?
Member Since: September 6, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 3784
1004. help4u
dr forbes on weather channel said shear would tear fred apart near bahamas.next storm.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Is anyone watching this fantasy show on Spike about surviving a hurricane? "Surviving Disaster: Hurricanes" http://www.spike.com/show/33200

What a crock of crap...

"You just got the hurricane warning.. you now have ONE HOUR to get to safety."

I can't believe they got Chris Landsea to give the voice of the National Hurricane Center.

Now, the guy's teaching people how to cross an angry river with a zipline with the hurricane just 'minutes' from making landfall...

Just a load of bunk...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ElConando:
tornado dude: woah lol this is why i'm a poli sci major :P. I can prob answer some of the questions but still I can understand why it is kicken ur butt. Good luck.


yeah, I think I'm just going to talk to my professor after class tomorrow
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1001. Skyepony (Mod)
Recon took AF300 out for a gallop in the GOM this evening. Usually we'd see 1 dropsonde report. Tonight we have 2 so far. 1st south of LA, 2nd well ESE of there. The second one was kinda late... 01Z & from ~400mb (up high). I wonder if it is on the way out toward the Leeward Islands..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Dakster:
WeatherStudent - Aren't you already at FIU? Don't you have an advisor?


Some major require more than 120 credits - so you better be careful what you pick. It also depends on what you took in High School. For example, the first math class that counted for my degree was calculus, but it you didn't have at least alegebra II in H.S. you'd have to take that first, which wouldn't count.

I am beginning to doubt that you are even in College.


I've never begun to believe it.

Just the thought makes me laugh.
Member Since: June 9, 2007 Posts: 4 Comments: 15950
Quoting atmoaggie:

Whoa, I didn't realize a howdy was in order.
So, howdy.

HOWDY!!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
998. JLPR
Also in the 18z GFS the islands have a close call with a possible storm
but then it turns it north right in front of them xD wheew lol



I want to see what does it do at the 00z GFS :)
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 36 Comments: 5223
Quoting alaina1085:
Tornadodude

Now im positive I made the right choice in not going for my met degree! LOL. That homework is like chinese to me.

Good Luck with it all. Maybe try searching the internet for help with some of the questions.


yeah, I really think I should have taken calc in high school :(
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting JLPR:


not much xD
everything is cool

and what's up in your side of the world?


Same thing... Although looking at a pay cut at work. Will let you know after thursday...

Hopefully no hurricane is en route!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
tornado dude: woah lol this is why i'm a poli sci major :P. I can prob answer some of the questions but still I can understand why it is kicken ur butt. Good luck.
Member Since: September 6, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 3784
Dak...Bingo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
993. JRRP

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting atmoaggie:

We always had HW buddies. 4 - 6 of us would get together and talk these things out out loud. We always got the answer and at some point every person was the one that "got it" and "taught" it to the rest of us.
Without having the group study we did, I wouldn't have done as well, I suspect.


yeah, I need to find some study partners for this, because the more people who are involved in it the more likely someone is to get it
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Tornadodude

Now im positive I made the right choice in not going for my met degree! LOL. That homework is like chinese to me.

Good Luck with it all. Maybe try searching the internet for help with some of the questions.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 1900hurricane:

It is 120+ hours here at Texas A&M, which averages out to 15 per semester if you are going for strictly 120 (which I am not). I'm not sure if it is the same at FIU, but I imagine it can't be too different.

Whoa, I didn't realize a howdy was in order.
So, howdy.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Skyepony:
Oh look at that...Cloudsat caught the eye of Choi-wan..





nice image very strong be happy its not in our basin
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56141
WeatherStudent - Aren't you already at FIU? Don't you have an advisor?


Some major require more than 120 credits - so you better be careful what you pick. It also depends on what you took in High School. For example, the first math class that counted for my degree was calculus, but it you didn't have at least alegebra II in H.S. you'd have to take that first, which wouldn't count.

I am beginning to doubt that you are even in College.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Stormchaser2007:
"9FredL"

Convection continues to rise, but still disorganized for my standards.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Eye of the beast.

Member Since: June 9, 2007 Posts: 4 Comments: 15950
Quoting tornadodude:


ok, this HW is kicking my butt, I guess I'm just not clear on what it is asking for

We always had HW buddies. 4 - 6 of us would get together and talk these things out out loud. We always got the answer and at some point every person was the one that "got it" and "taught" it to the rest of us.
Without having the group study we did, I wouldn't have done as well, I suspect.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
984. JLPR
everyone is aware of this area getting ready to exit Africa, probably tomorrow... right? XD

Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 36 Comments: 5223
983. JLPR
Quoting Dakster:
JLPR - What's up?


not much xD
everything is cool

and what's up in your side of the world?
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 36 Comments: 5223
Quoting tornadodude:


ok, this HW is kicking my butt, I guess I'm just not clear on what it is asking for


need that math help ;)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
981. JLPR
Quoting zoomiami:


Hi JLPR


hello :)
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 36 Comments: 5223
Quoting ElConando:


What math is it?



here you go-

EAS 109 -- Problem Set #1
Faint Sun and Habitability Zone
Due next Wednesday (Sept 16)

The following question is modified from Critical Thinking questions in Chapter 3 (Energy Balance), Chapter 12 (Long-term Climate) and Chapter 19 (Habitability). The goal is to combine the known progressive warming of the Sun with the radiative energy-balance and greenhouse feedbacks to understand the conditions suitable for Life in the past, and in the future.
For convenience, we recommend that you use an Excel spreadsheet to perform the routine calculations (I have provided a hint spread sheet that will speed along your calculations). For the first calculation, show your work (with explanations and units), then you can use same procedure to fill in the remaining parts of the table.

Background:

1. Solar Flux with time (ancient “faint sun”, and future “hot sun”)
The variation in the Solar Flux (S) reaching the Earth at different times can be approximated by the formula: (read pages 233-236 in 3rd edition or 230-233 in 2nd edition)
(S / So) = 1 / [1 + 0.4 * (1 - (t / to))]
Where, So = modern solar flux at Earth (1 AU distance from Sun)
= 1370 Watts per meter2
t = time in billions of years SINCE the Sun’s formation
to = modern time = 4.6 billion years SINCE Sun’s formation

2. Solar Flux with distance {see Page 38-40 in 3rd edition or Pages 35-38 in 2nd edition }
Solar flux decreases with the square of increasing distance from the Sun:
S = So * (ro / r )2
Where, So = modern solar flux at Earth (ro = 1 AU distance from Sun)
= 1370 Watts per meter2
r = some other distance from the Sun (in AU)

3. Blackbody Temperature of Planetary Surface {see Pages 40-44 in 3rd edition Pages 39 to 42 in 2nd edition}
Balance of incoming vs outgoing energy implies:
sigma * K4 = (S / 4) * (1 - A)
Where, S = solar flux in Watts per meter2
sigma = 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2/K4
K = blackbody temperature in kelvins
273.15 K = freezing = 0°C = 32°F
373.15 K = boiling = 100°C = 212°F
A = albedo (Earth = 0.3)

4. Surface Temperature with Greenhouse {see Pages 43 & 45 in the 3rd edition or Pages 41 & 43 in 2nd edition}
For modern Earth, the added heating from partially returned Infrared Radiation amounts to a “greenhouse effect” of 33K (blackbody temp = 255K versus actual surface temp of 288K).

5. Planetary Information
Venus Earth Mars
r (AU) 0.72 1.0 1.52
modern Albedo 0.8 0.3 0.22
modern surface temperature 733 K (460°C) 288 K (15°C) 218 K (-55°C)

******************************
Now, armed with array of facts and equations, we will discover the ancient and future temperatures of the planets, and the “habitability zone” for Life.
For the moment, assume that the Albedo and the “greenhouse effect” for each planet was and will remain the same as today. You will soon learn that this is a completely wrong assumption—but necessary for now.

1. Our first goal is to fill in the following table (S = solar flux at the planet at time t; BB = computed blackbody temp in K; Surf = surface temp after “greenhouse effect” in K, and also in °C and °F). Note that you will first need to compute the “greenhouse effect” factor for Venus and Mars based on the modern data, then we will assume the planet had a constant value through time. Please prepare your array of results as a separate Excel table (landscape format).


Age Venus Earth Mars
Ba S BB Surf S BB Surf S BB Surf .

0.3
3.0
4.6 730K, 1370 255K 288K,15°C,59°F 218K,
6.0
8.0

2. Based on your table, and the assumptions of “constant albedo”, “constant greenhouse factor” and if surface pressure at each planet was the same as present Earth, which planets were, are and will be suitable for Life (liquid water at average surface conditions) at each time interval?
3. If the Greenhouse effect at Venus at 0.3 billion years was the SAME as modern Earth, would it have been suitable for the evolution of Life?
4. If the Greenhouse effect at Mars at 6.0 billion years was the same as modern Venus today (implying that we vaporize ice caps and groundwater on Mars), would it become suitable for the evolution of Life?
5. What “greenhouse effect” factor was required for Life to have evolved on Earth at 0.3 billion years? How does this compare to modern Venus?

Show your work (with explanations). You are encouraged to work with another person, but each must hand in separately.

NOTE: Store your Excel work table file, because we will use a similar set of climate-time changes when we examine Ice Ages. It will save work in the future.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
'll bet the answer is on the FIU website...Ya ever checked that out?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
"9FredL"

Member Since: June 9, 2007 Posts: 4 Comments: 15950
Quoting JLPR:
awww noone is replying to me tonight :( lol


Hi JLPR
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting tornadodude:


ok, this HW is kicking my butt, I guess I'm just not clear on what it is asking for


What math is it?
Member Since: September 6, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 3784
JLPR - What's up?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting WeatherStudent:
tell me, plz?

It is 120+ hours here at Texas A&M, which averages out to 15 per semester if you are going for strictly 120 (which I am not). I'm not sure if it is the same at FIU, but I imagine it can't be too different.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
973. JLPR
awww noone is replying to me tonight :( lol
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 36 Comments: 5223
Quoting atmoaggie:


Many of our most rapidly intensifying systems are those that advected vorticity from other lows nearby...not saying this will happen but the potential is worth watching for.


ok, this HW is kicking my butt, I guess I'm just not clear on what it is asking for
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormW:


Good evening, and thank you!


At the peak of the season .... nice to say, good this eve without saying what if .... checking out ... take care Sir SW
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting WeatherStudent:
tell me, plz?
About 120 hrs give a little.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
WS - Usually 120 credits.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Dakster:


Why thank you..


you better not be saying what I think your saying. :/
Member Since: September 6, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 3784

Viewing: 1018 - 968

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Overcast
39 °F
Overcast

JeffMasters's Recent Photos

Lake Effort Snow Shower Over Windsor, Ontario
Sunset on Dunham Lake
Pictured Rocks Sunset
Sunset on Lake Huron