Arctic temperatures the warmest in 2,000 years; 2009 Arctic sea ice loss 3rd highest

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:32 PM GMT on September 04, 2009

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It's time to take a bit of a break from coverage of the Atlantic hurricane season of 2009, and report on some important climate news. The past decade was the warmest decade in the Arctic for the past 2,000 years, according to a study called "Recent Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling" published today in the journal Science. Furthermore, four of the five warmest decades in the past 2,000 years occurred between 1950 - 2000, despite the fact that summertime solar radiation in the Arctic has been steadily declining for the past 2,000 years. Previous efforts to reconstruct past climate in the Arctic extended back only 400 years, so the new study--which used lake sediments, glacier ice cores, and tree rings to look at past climate back to the time of Christ, decade by decade-- is a major new milestone in our understanding of the Arctic climate. The researchers found that Arctic temperatures steadily declined between 1 A.D. and 1900 A.D., as would be expected due to a 26,000-year cycle in Earth's orbit that brought less summer sunshine to the North Pole. Earth is now about 620,000 miles (1 million km) farther from the Sun in the Arctic summer than it was 2000 years ago. However, temperatures in the Arctic began to rise around the year 1900, and are now 1.4°C (2.5°F) warmer than they should be, based on the amount of sunlight that is currently falling in the Arctic in summer. "If it hadn't been for the increase in human-produced greenhouse gases, summer temperatures in the Arctic should have cooled gradually over the last century," Bette Otto-Bliesner, a co-author from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, said in a statement.

The Arctic melt season of 2009
Arctic sea ice suffered another summer of significant melting in 2009, with August ice extent the third lowest on record, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. August ice extent was 19% below the 1979 - 2000 average, and only 2007 and 2008 saw more melting of Arctic sea ice. We've now had two straight years in the Arctic without a new record minimum in sea ice. However, this does not mean that the Arctic sea ice is recovering. The reduced melting in 2009 compared to 2007 and 2008 primarily resulted from a different atmospheric circulation pattern this summer. This pattern generated winds that transported ice toward the Siberian coast and discouraged export of ice out of the Arctic Ocean. The previous two summers, the prevailing wind pattern acted to transport more ice out of the Arctic through Fram Strait, along the east side of Greenland. At last December's meeting of the American Geophysical Union, the world's largest scientific conference on climate change, J.E. Kay of the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that Arctic surface pressure in the summer of 2007 was the fourth highest since 1948, and cloud cover at Barrow, Alaska was the sixth lowest. This suggests that once every 10 - 20 years a "perfect storm" of weather conditions highly favorable for ice loss invades the Arctic. The last two times such conditions existed was 1977 and 1987, and it may be another ten or so years before weather conditions align properly to set a new record minimum.

The Northeast Passage opens
As a result of this summer's melting, the Northeast Passage, a notoriously ice-choked sea route along the northern Russia, is now clear of ice and open for navigation. Satellite analyses by the University of Illinois Polar Research Group and the National Snow and Ice Data Center show that the last remaining ice blockage along the north coast of Russia melted in late August, allowing navigation from Europe to Alaska in ice-free waters. Mariners have been attempting to sail the Northeast Passage since 1553, and it wasn't until the record-breaking Arctic sea-ice melt year of 2005 that the Northeast Passage opened for ice-free navigation for the first time in recorded history. The fabled Northwest Passage through the Arctic waters of Canada has remained closed this summer, however. An atmospheric pressure pattern set up in late July that created winds that pushed old, thick ice into several of the channels of the Northwest Passage. Recent research by Stephen Howell at the University of Waterloo in Canada shows that whether the Northwest Passage clears depends less on how much melt occurs, and more on whether multi-year sea ice is pushed into the channels. Counter-intuitively, as the ice cover thins, ice may flow more easily into the channels, preventing the Northwest Passage from regularly opening in coming decades, if the prevailing winds set up to blow ice into the channels of the Passage. The Northwest Passage opened for the first time in recorded history in 2007, and again in 2008. Mariners have been attempting to find a route through the Northwest Passage since 1497.


Figure 1. Sea ice extent on September 2, 2009, with the Northwest Passage (red line) and Northeast Passage (green line) shown. The Northeast Passage was open, but the Northwest Passage was blocked in three places. The orange line shows the median edge of sea ice extent for September 2 during the period 1979 - 2000, and this year's ice extent is about 19% below average. Image credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Commercial shipping begins in the Northeast Passage
This year's opening marks the fourth time in five years that the Northeast Passage has opened, and commercial shipping companies are taking note. Two German ships set off on August 21 on the first commercial voyage ever made through the Northeast Passage without the help of icebreakers. The Northeast Passage trims 4,500 miles off the 12,500 mile trip through the Suez Canal, yielding considerable savings in fuel. The voyage was not possible last year, because Russia had not yet worked out a permitting process. With Arctic sea ice expected to continue to decline in the coming decades, shipping traffic through the Northeast Passage will likely become commonplace most summers.

When was the Northeast Passage ice-free in the past?
People have been attempting to penetrate the ice-bound Northeast Passage since 1553, when British explorer Sir Hugh Willoughby attempted the passage with three ships and 62 men. The frozen bodies of Sir Hugh and his men were found a year later, after they failed to make it past the northern coast of Finland. British explorer Henry Hudson, who died in 1611 trying to find a route through Canada's fabled Northwest Passage, (and whom Canada's Hudson Bay and New York's Hudson River are named after), attempted to sail the Northeast Passage in 1607 and 1608, and failed. The Northeast Passage has remained closed to navigation, except via assist by icebreakers, from 1553 to 2005. The results published in Science today suggest that prior to 2005, the last previous opening was the period 5,000 - 7,000 years ago, when the Earth's orbital variations brought more sunlight to the Arctic in summer than at present. It is possible we'll know better soon. A new technique that examines organic compounds left behind in Arctic sediments by diatoms that live in sea ice give hope that a detailed record of sea ice extent extending back to the end of the Ice Age 12,000 years ago may be possible (Belt et al., 2007). The researchers are studying sediments along the Northwest Passage in hopes of being able to determine when the Passage was last open.

References
Belt, S.T., G. Masse, S.J. Rowland, M. Poulin, C. Michel, and B. LeBlanc, "A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25", Organic Geochemistry, Volume 38, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 16-27.

Darrell S. Kaufman, David P. Schneider, Nicholas P. McKay, Caspar M. Ammann, Raymond S. Bradley, Keith R. Briffa, Gifford H. Miller, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Jonathan T. Overpeck, Bo M. Vinther, and Arctic Lakes 2k Project Members, 2009, "Recent Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling", Science 4 September 2009: 1236-1239.

Howell, S. E. L., C. R. Duguay, and T. Markus. 2009. Sea ice conditions and melt season duration variability within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 1979.2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10502, doi:10.1029/2009GL037681.

Tropical Weather Outlook
The remains of Tropical Storm Erika are bringing heavy rain to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands today, and this activity will spread to the Dominican Republic on Saturday. Radar-estimated rainfall shows up to three inches of rain has fallen in eastern Puerto Rico from the storm. Long range radar out of Puerto Rico shows no surface circulation or organization of the echoes, and redevelopment of Erika over the next three days is unlikely to occur due to high wind shear of 25 - 30 knots. By Monday or Tuesday, shear may drop enough to allow redevelopment, depending upon the location of Erika's remains. Redevelopment is more likely if Erika works its way northwestward into the Bahamas.

A large tropical wave with plenty of spin is located a few hundred miles southwest of the Cape Verdes Islands, off the coast of Africa. Heavy thunderstorm activity has increased slightly in this wave over the past day, and it has the potential to gradually develop into a tropical depression by early next week. NHC is giving this wave a low (less than 30% chance) of developing into a tropical depression by Sunday. The GFS model continues to predict development of this wave into a tropical depression early next week.

I'll have an update Saturday or Sunday, depending upon developments in the tropics.

Jeff Masters

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Actually it does support my argument perfectly.

Here I make the call 7 MONTHS ago about it:

http://www.youtube.com/user/liquidpaper4#play/all/uploads-all/0/zd0CqWcqHJo

Warming is all according to MSU data in northern hemisphere -- consistant with peak lightning occurring during late summer/early fall for northern hemisphere!
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I see the orange crayon is out of the box!
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Quoting LUCARIO:
CODE ORANGE ON NHC

Fred is sneaky, he knew y'all were debating
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Quoting LUCARIO:
I BEEN LURKING HERE SINCE 2005

I became a member to warn yall about the big one.


Big what winter season? Solar flare? Polar Shift? Democrats loosing 90% of congress and senate in 2010? the end of the world in 2012? Please be secific.
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Red Centre bakes in hottest winter ever
Kirsty Nancarrow, Tuesday September 4, 2009 -

The Red Centre has had its hottest winter on record.

Sam Cleland from the Northern Territory Bureau of Meteorology says Alice Springs recorded 16 days above 30 degrees in August.

He says it was a remarkable month for many parts of the Territory, with temperatures often five or six degrees higher than usual.

"The circumstances that brought this on are interesting," he said.

"Really what we saw was a lack of the big high pressure systems pumping in colder air from more southern climes.

"And as a result of that we didn't get the flushing out of colder air and the air mass was just a little bit more stagnant than normal and continued to heat up as the month went on."

The bureau says it was also the hottest August for the Australian continent.
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CODE ORANGE ON NHC

Fred is sneaky
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huh?

sorry wrong blog...

I thought I was in Doc's blog...my bad.
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I told you Art Bell(aka Methane Mike} would comeback. I'm out going to give it a break. Have a nice weekend.
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Quoting palmbaywhoo:


I cant believe people who actually offer useful information on the blog get blocked or mimimized and some people who offer NOTHING weather related don't...


Its the way the cookie crumbles.
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thats more like it
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42% and falling!
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Quoting palmbaywhoo:


I cant believe people who actually offer useful information on the blog get blocked or mimimized and some people who offer NOTHING weather related don't...


RIP EMILY
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Just had a chance for the first time all day to check on the tropics.

Based upon some quick, and I mean quick, analysis, it appears to me that the remnants of Tropical Cyclone Erika have degenerated into a surface trough producing some widespread scattered showers and storms over Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Given that wind shear continues to punish the remnants and that there's been little movement, I doubt that we will see this regenerate back into a tropical cyclone again. I'm really happy that it has come to an end since it was such a difficult system to forecast.

Now, the tropical wave coming off Africa looks quite promising for development, but then again I've said that a few times before and they've turned out to be busts. Coming off Africa, it had one of the most well-defined circulations I have ever seen with a tropical wave emerging out into the Atlantic. Now it remains to be seen where this will trek and how much an effect dry air will have on the progression of this tropical wave, but I will be keeping a close eye on it.

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I think I need to go to the shed, get my hip boots, and put them on, cause it is getting deep in her.LMAO
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CaneHunter, I couldn't agree with you more. Well said.
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I BEEN LURKING HERE SINCE 2005

I became a member to warn yall about the big one.
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Quoting LUCARIO:
laughing all the way to the bank





WUmail me that link, my friends would love that..LMAO!!
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Quoting rwdobson:
"NO GOVERNMENT CONTROL of healsth care or anything for that matter."

So, I assume when your house catches on fire, you won't be calling the fire department, right. You'll just use a private fire-fighting service, since the private sector is always better.

It really used to be that way in the US. Private fire departments. It didn't work out so well.


I didn't know the Government owned fire departments? Just asking because I have never heard of that before??
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505. DVG
Quoting bluehaze27:


The problem is that when one has invested so much time believing in an idea (whatever the idea is), it is hard to get them to admit the error in their ways. They would rather stick fingers in their ears and say la ti da ti da over and over again to drown out what they don't want to hear or are too embarassesd to accept. Folks, admitting when one is wrong is not a slam on ones intelligence. In fact, it shows a higher level of intelligence.


Glad you don't handle my investment account.
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Quoting CaneHunter031472:


Ohh you poor little sheeple who never figured out how to separate from your superiors and always need someone too look uo to to figure out what to do in any situation. You give away your freedoms so easily. Firefighters you think that they would not exist if there was no government. Government does not to be eliminated I am not an anarchist, but thye have too much control. Anyway you will NEVER be part of their elite and they look down on you as some sort of servant simian creature. Do you think government gives a rats behind if there is fire departments or police which by the way they trampple over daily. If it wasn't for their constituents who complain and threaten them to throw them out of office, they would not care at all. but sheeple like you who think Obama and his great group of holy szars came from heaven on top of a cloud and you think all problems are solved because government will handle the situation from now on. So now no more worries for you you can go back and watch your american idol or favority MTV reality show, but in reality your country your home is been stolen from you and you numb sheeple are satisfied with that.

Feel sorry for all fo you.


Pssst. It started long before Obama.
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Quoting NRAamy:
justalurker...you work for admin now? either that, or you've had more bans than me....how else would you know the number?


its start at 12, 24 and i dont know the rest. man 195 hours that awsome, that means youve really been working at it. Good Job
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Quoting MethaneMike:


A number of conservative political sites, supported by big coal and oil, etc., etc., of course, have jumped on the fact that there are low sun spot levels and that the tropical storm season has been quiet by such measures as global ACE. However, an electrical model of climate predicts as much.
Where you can really see it is the Arctic melting. See the RED anomalies above? Even conservatives can see those anomalies, at least they could this winter on the conservative web sites and publications when they noted that the ice sheet was back to normal levels. Anomalies occur in the late summer/early fall purely because of electrics!

There have been more than 50 days between the last sun spot and the one we got a couple days ago. Okay? Now the conservatives argue that climate change is a function of the sun's activity and not CO2. BUT . . . CO2 from an electrics standpoint is a more complex problem because CO2 has conductivity meaning. Last time sun spots were this scarce, the 1914 Atlantic tropical storm season was the most quiet on record. But this time around, it was quiet only in the early part of the season. So what gives?

What gives is that the global electrical circuit starts to peak about 2 weeks into August and goes until 2 weeks into October--essentially during the CV season. This is because the northern hemisphere has more land, and since 90 percent of lightning, which powers the global electrical circuit, occurs over land, the northern hemisphere gets more lightning and then in its summer and fall the current in the global electrical circuit peaks. Since the power derived from currents in the global electrical circuit in simple model can be expressed power equals current squared times resistance, where resistance is what is varied with increases in CO2, the affect of conductivity by CO2 is most pronounced during peak lightning. Which is right now.

Add the variable--CO2 to the space weather change, and you get a more active season than 1914, which we see only during the seasonal increase in currents in the global electrical circuit.

Anomalies of the melting ice sheet occur in the late summer/early fall purely because of electrics! Simple electrics for power is equal to current squared times resistance. Since the current in a simple modle of the global electrical circuit peaks during peak lightning, and CO2 is a conducivity variable, the effect of CO2 by a order of power peaks during peak lightning, which is why the forcing is seen in the Arctic WHEN it is seen. For more details on electrics click my block linked with my name, Methane Mike.


ok now post the same chart for antartica, but you wont because it wont support your arguement
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Quoting CaneHunter031472:


I am perfectly fine with that. What I do not a gree is a group of inmoral politicians telling me I have to do it when they live la vida loca in their lear jets. Sorry I believe in freedom of choice and free will. If you love government control I can suggest a couple of places perhaps CUba or hey North Korea I herad they have and awesome universal diet program there. Do not destroy the only decent p[lace in the workd to live I have been all around the world and all I did when I travelled was to think about going back home, The USA.

FREEDOM,
FREE WILL,
FREE MARKETS
NO GOVERNMENT CONTROL of healsth care or anything for that matter.
BE independent please queit depending on big brother.

if you feel like driving a Prius do it but let it be your decision not the decision of a small elite. or you will regret it in the future.


Hey, no argument there. We all gotta make choices for ourselves. Twelve years ago I had a friend whose six year old had asthma, and after seeing her pretend to smoke watching me, I quit. But I'm not out there advocating smoke bans. I vote with my wallet now that my own nose is sensitive, and go to places that don't allow it. :)
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Quoting JupiterFL:


That was really funny by the way.


I cant believe people who actually offer useful information on the blog get blocked or mimimized and some people who offer NOTHING weather related don't...
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Quoting LBAR:
I appreciate the fact the Dr. Masters indicates the Arctic ice melt is due to natural causes of the Earth's orbit.

Erika's remnants are a fighter! Thank goodness for wind shear because by all indications she'd have been a bad one!

Maybe you didn't read this passage: However, temperatures in the Arctic began to rise around the year 1900, and are now 1.4°C (2.5°F) warmer than they should be, based on the amount of sunlight that is currently falling in the Arctic in summer. "If it hadn't been for the increase in human-produced greenhouse gases, summer temperatures in the Arctic should have cooled gradually over the last century," Bette Otto-Bliesner, a co-author from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, said in a statement.
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Quoting NRAamy:
justalurker...you work for admin now? either that, or you've had more bans than me....how else would you know the number?


shhhhhhhh..got a little secret.
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Quoting MethaneMike:


A number of conservative political sites, supported by big coal and oil, etc., etc., of course, have jumped on the fact that there are low sun spot levels and that the tropical storm season has been quiet by such measures as global ACE. However, an electrical model of climate predicts as much.
Where you can really see it is the Arctic melting. See the RED anomalies above? Even conservatives can see those anomalies, at least they could this winter on the conservative web sites and publications when they noted that the ice sheet was back to normal levels. Anomalies occur in the late summer/early fall purely because of electrics!

There have been more than 50 days between the last sun spot and the one we got a couple days ago. Okay? Now the conservatives argue that climate change is a function of the sun's activity and not CO2. BUT . . . CO2 from an electrics standpoint is a more complex problem because CO2 has conductivity meaning. Last time sun spots were this scarce, the 1914 Atlantic tropical storm season was the most quiet on record. But this time around, it was quiet only in the early part of the season. So what gives?

What gives is that the global electrical circuit starts to peak about 2 weeks into August and goes until 2 weeks into October--essentially during the CV season. This is because the northern hemisphere has more land, and since 90 percent of lightning, which powers the global electrical circuit, occurs over land, the northern hemisphere gets more lightning and then in its summer and fall the current in the global electrical circuit peaks. Since the power derived from currents in the global electrical circuit in simple model can be expressed power equals current squared times resistance, where resistance is what is varied with increases in CO2, the affect of conductivity by CO2 is most pronounced during peak lightning. Which is right now.

Add the variable--CO2 to the space weather change, and you get a more active season than 1914, which we see only during the seasonal increase in currents in the global electrical circuit.

Anomalies of the melting ice sheet occur in the late summer/early fall purely because of electrics! Simple electrics for power is equal to current squared times resistance. Since the current in a simple modle of the global electrical circuit peaks during peak lightning, and CO2 is a conducivity variable, the effect of CO2 by a order of power peaks during peak lightning, which is why the forcing is seen in the Arctic WHEN it is seen. For more details on electrics click my block linked with my name, Methane Mike.


Ummm...yea...you lost me at A
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Quoting forestwedder:
Just to give some of the folks on this blog an idea as to why storms of any strength are feared by us in the mountainous islands in the Antilles. Parts of Dominica had recorded over 12" of rain during the passage of Erika. This morning during a thunderstorm a further 5"+ (my rain guage overflowed)in a 3HR period on the mid east side of the island. This deluge has caused slides & bridge topping on two of the main roads linkin that side of the island to the capital. Something for the wishcasters to think about.


That is a lot of rain, some of which I guess you needed.
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Quoting CaneHunter031472:


Ohh you poor little sheeple who never figured out how to separate from your superiors and always need someone too look uo to to figure out what to do in any situation. You give away your freedoms so easily. Firefighters you think that they would not exist if there was no government. Government does not to be eliminated I am not an anarchist, but thye have too much control. Anyway you will NEVER be part of their elite and they look down on you as some sort of servant simian creature. Do you think government gives a rats behind if there is fire departments or police which by the way they trampple over daily. If it wasn't for their constituents who complain and threaten them to throw them out of office, they would not care at all. but sheeple like you who think Obama and his great group of holy szars came from heaven on top of a cloud and you think all problems are solved because government will handle the situation from now on. So now no more worries for you you can go back and watch your american idol or favority MTV reality show, but in reality your country your home is been stolen from you and you numb sheeple are satisfied with that.

Feel sorry for all fo you.


"Look at these people, amazing how sheeple line up for the slaughter...
No one condemning you line up like lemmings you led to the water.
Why can't they see what I see, why can't they hear the lies?
Maybe the fee's to pricey for them to realize, your disguise is... slipping.
I think you're slipping...."

Sorry -- whenever anyone says "Sheeple", I can't help but think of that. And this.

Your post also reminded me of this. ;)
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Quoting presslord:
Five Guys is the best!!!!!!!!!!! It's a heart attack on a plate...


have you ever heard of anything that good..like lard..that is not good for you.
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justalurker...you work for admin now? either that, or you've had more bans than me....how else would you know the number?
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Quoting StormChaser81:


I have been meaning to try 5 guys, i heard its really good.


best hamburger you will ever eat..its like wendys, but 100% better..there meat is not frozen and fries are shipped daily..
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Five Guys is the best!!!!!!!!!!! It's a heart attack on a plate...
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Quoting Spartan117:
415. JupiterFL 4:57 PM GMT on September 04, 2009
I think Obama posted on the blog last year. Has he been around lately? Maybe he could add some commentary.

Cue guy with all the screen names....


lmao THAT WAS ME!
It's really sad how gullible some of the people on here are...

Anyways I'll go back to lurking but great job with all the forecasts so far...this blog is better than its ever been!

WUNDERGROUND HIGH FIVE!

now back to the season already in session...


That was really funny by the way.
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A number of conservative political sites, supported by big coal and oil, etc., etc., of course, have jumped on the fact that there are low sun spot levels and that the tropical storm season has been quiet by such measures as global ACE. However, an electrical model of climate predicts as much.
Where you can really see it is the Arctic melting. See the RED anomalies above? Even conservatives can see those anomalies, at least they could this winter on the conservative web sites and publications when they noted that the ice sheet was back to normal levels. Anomalies occur in the late summer/early fall purely because of electrics!

There have been more than 50 days between the last sun spot and the one we got a couple days ago. Okay? Now the conservatives argue that climate change is a function of the sun's activity and not CO2. BUT . . . CO2 from an electrics standpoint is a more complex problem because CO2 has conductivity meaning. Last time sun spots were this scarce, the 1914 Atlantic tropical storm season was the most quiet on record. But this time around, it was quiet only in the early part of the season. So what gives?

What gives is that the global electrical circuit starts to peak about 2 weeks into August and goes until 2 weeks into October--essentially during the CV season. This is because the northern hemisphere has more land, and since 90 percent of lightning, which powers the global electrical circuit, occurs over land, the northern hemisphere gets more lightning and then in its summer and fall the current in the global electrical circuit peaks. Since the power derived from currents in the global electrical circuit in simple model can be expressed power equals current squared times resistance, where resistance is what is varied with increases in CO2, the affect of conductivity by CO2 is most pronounced during peak lightning. Which is right now.

Add the variable--CO2 to the space weather change, and you get a more active season than 1914, which we see only during the seasonal increase in currents in the global electrical circuit.

Anomalies of the melting ice sheet occur in the late summer/early fall purely because of electrics! Simple electrics for power is equal to current squared times resistance. Since the current in a simple modle of the global electrical circuit peaks during peak lightning, and CO2 is a conducivity variable, the effect of CO2 by a order of power peaks during peak lightning, which is why the forcing is seen in the Arctic WHEN it is seen. For more details on electrics click my block linked with my name, Methane Mike.
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humans love to fight
thats why they debate
because humans love to fight

in the end it doesn't matter who is right or wrong, can't change it.

Humans just love to fight
debate is another word for fighting without hands.
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Quoting NRAamy:
I've got a great comeback but don't feel like being banned!

WUmail me...I'll post it...what's one more banning...I've lost count...

;)


good point..next one is for 195hrs though..
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
10 percent meat by-produts 90 percent soybean = 100 percent big mac
Don't even get me started on soy..
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Quoting presslord:


How can you have any pudding if you don't eat your meat?!?!?!?!?!


Good one! Pink Floyd! Now that line will be stuck in my head all day!
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Quoting justalurker:


just had 5 guys last night..that was some good hamburgers..


I have been meaning to try 5 guys, i heard its really good.
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I've got a great comeback but don't feel like being banned!

WUmail me...I'll post it...what's one more banning...I've lost count...

;)
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Quoting StormChaser81:


Yummy, making me hungry, NOT...


just had 5 guys last night..that was some good hamburgers..
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I think the circulation ex Erika has relocated to the SE of PR around 15/65.
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Quoting KarenRei:


They *openly* offer a $10k prize *per denialist paper*. Point to anything even remotely comparable on the other side. The fossil fuel industry is responsible for *trillions* of dollars of economic activity worldwide. There's nothing even remotely comparable to that.

The overwhelming majority of published climatologists work for public universities, which means low pay. And published climatologists are approximately 97% likely to state that the Earth is warming and about an equivalent percent to state that that humans are responsible for climate change.

I'll not get into a propaganda war with you on the issue.
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About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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