Arctic temperatures the warmest in 2,000 years; 2009 Arctic sea ice loss 3rd highest

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:32 PM GMT on September 04, 2009

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It's time to take a bit of a break from coverage of the Atlantic hurricane season of 2009, and report on some important climate news. The past decade was the warmest decade in the Arctic for the past 2,000 years, according to a study called "Recent Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling" published today in the journal Science. Furthermore, four of the five warmest decades in the past 2,000 years occurred between 1950 - 2000, despite the fact that summertime solar radiation in the Arctic has been steadily declining for the past 2,000 years. Previous efforts to reconstruct past climate in the Arctic extended back only 400 years, so the new study--which used lake sediments, glacier ice cores, and tree rings to look at past climate back to the time of Christ, decade by decade-- is a major new milestone in our understanding of the Arctic climate. The researchers found that Arctic temperatures steadily declined between 1 A.D. and 1900 A.D., as would be expected due to a 26,000-year cycle in Earth's orbit that brought less summer sunshine to the North Pole. Earth is now about 620,000 miles (1 million km) farther from the Sun in the Arctic summer than it was 2000 years ago. However, temperatures in the Arctic began to rise around the year 1900, and are now 1.4°C (2.5°F) warmer than they should be, based on the amount of sunlight that is currently falling in the Arctic in summer. "If it hadn't been for the increase in human-produced greenhouse gases, summer temperatures in the Arctic should have cooled gradually over the last century," Bette Otto-Bliesner, a co-author from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, said in a statement.

The Arctic melt season of 2009
Arctic sea ice suffered another summer of significant melting in 2009, with August ice extent the third lowest on record, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. August ice extent was 19% below the 1979 - 2000 average, and only 2007 and 2008 saw more melting of Arctic sea ice. We've now had two straight years in the Arctic without a new record minimum in sea ice. However, this does not mean that the Arctic sea ice is recovering. The reduced melting in 2009 compared to 2007 and 2008 primarily resulted from a different atmospheric circulation pattern this summer. This pattern generated winds that transported ice toward the Siberian coast and discouraged export of ice out of the Arctic Ocean. The previous two summers, the prevailing wind pattern acted to transport more ice out of the Arctic through Fram Strait, along the east side of Greenland. At last December's meeting of the American Geophysical Union, the world's largest scientific conference on climate change, J.E. Kay of the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that Arctic surface pressure in the summer of 2007 was the fourth highest since 1948, and cloud cover at Barrow, Alaska was the sixth lowest. This suggests that once every 10 - 20 years a "perfect storm" of weather conditions highly favorable for ice loss invades the Arctic. The last two times such conditions existed was 1977 and 1987, and it may be another ten or so years before weather conditions align properly to set a new record minimum.

The Northeast Passage opens
As a result of this summer's melting, the Northeast Passage, a notoriously ice-choked sea route along the northern Russia, is now clear of ice and open for navigation. Satellite analyses by the University of Illinois Polar Research Group and the National Snow and Ice Data Center show that the last remaining ice blockage along the north coast of Russia melted in late August, allowing navigation from Europe to Alaska in ice-free waters. Mariners have been attempting to sail the Northeast Passage since 1553, and it wasn't until the record-breaking Arctic sea-ice melt year of 2005 that the Northeast Passage opened for ice-free navigation for the first time in recorded history. The fabled Northwest Passage through the Arctic waters of Canada has remained closed this summer, however. An atmospheric pressure pattern set up in late July that created winds that pushed old, thick ice into several of the channels of the Northwest Passage. Recent research by Stephen Howell at the University of Waterloo in Canada shows that whether the Northwest Passage clears depends less on how much melt occurs, and more on whether multi-year sea ice is pushed into the channels. Counter-intuitively, as the ice cover thins, ice may flow more easily into the channels, preventing the Northwest Passage from regularly opening in coming decades, if the prevailing winds set up to blow ice into the channels of the Passage. The Northwest Passage opened for the first time in recorded history in 2007, and again in 2008. Mariners have been attempting to find a route through the Northwest Passage since 1497.


Figure 1. Sea ice extent on September 2, 2009, with the Northwest Passage (red line) and Northeast Passage (green line) shown. The Northeast Passage was open, but the Northwest Passage was blocked in three places. The orange line shows the median edge of sea ice extent for September 2 during the period 1979 - 2000, and this year's ice extent is about 19% below average. Image credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Commercial shipping begins in the Northeast Passage
This year's opening marks the fourth time in five years that the Northeast Passage has opened, and commercial shipping companies are taking note. Two German ships set off on August 21 on the first commercial voyage ever made through the Northeast Passage without the help of icebreakers. The Northeast Passage trims 4,500 miles off the 12,500 mile trip through the Suez Canal, yielding considerable savings in fuel. The voyage was not possible last year, because Russia had not yet worked out a permitting process. With Arctic sea ice expected to continue to decline in the coming decades, shipping traffic through the Northeast Passage will likely become commonplace most summers.

When was the Northeast Passage ice-free in the past?
People have been attempting to penetrate the ice-bound Northeast Passage since 1553, when British explorer Sir Hugh Willoughby attempted the passage with three ships and 62 men. The frozen bodies of Sir Hugh and his men were found a year later, after they failed to make it past the northern coast of Finland. British explorer Henry Hudson, who died in 1611 trying to find a route through Canada's fabled Northwest Passage, (and whom Canada's Hudson Bay and New York's Hudson River are named after), attempted to sail the Northeast Passage in 1607 and 1608, and failed. The Northeast Passage has remained closed to navigation, except via assist by icebreakers, from 1553 to 2005. The results published in Science today suggest that prior to 2005, the last previous opening was the period 5,000 - 7,000 years ago, when the Earth's orbital variations brought more sunlight to the Arctic in summer than at present. It is possible we'll know better soon. A new technique that examines organic compounds left behind in Arctic sediments by diatoms that live in sea ice give hope that a detailed record of sea ice extent extending back to the end of the Ice Age 12,000 years ago may be possible (Belt et al., 2007). The researchers are studying sediments along the Northwest Passage in hopes of being able to determine when the Passage was last open.

References
Belt, S.T., G. Masse, S.J. Rowland, M. Poulin, C. Michel, and B. LeBlanc, "A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25", Organic Geochemistry, Volume 38, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 16-27.

Darrell S. Kaufman, David P. Schneider, Nicholas P. McKay, Caspar M. Ammann, Raymond S. Bradley, Keith R. Briffa, Gifford H. Miller, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Jonathan T. Overpeck, Bo M. Vinther, and Arctic Lakes 2k Project Members, 2009, "Recent Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling", Science 4 September 2009: 1236-1239.

Howell, S. E. L., C. R. Duguay, and T. Markus. 2009. Sea ice conditions and melt season duration variability within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 1979.2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10502, doi:10.1029/2009GL037681.

Tropical Weather Outlook
The remains of Tropical Storm Erika are bringing heavy rain to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands today, and this activity will spread to the Dominican Republic on Saturday. Radar-estimated rainfall shows up to three inches of rain has fallen in eastern Puerto Rico from the storm. Long range radar out of Puerto Rico shows no surface circulation or organization of the echoes, and redevelopment of Erika over the next three days is unlikely to occur due to high wind shear of 25 - 30 knots. By Monday or Tuesday, shear may drop enough to allow redevelopment, depending upon the location of Erika's remains. Redevelopment is more likely if Erika works its way northwestward into the Bahamas.

A large tropical wave with plenty of spin is located a few hundred miles southwest of the Cape Verdes Islands, off the coast of Africa. Heavy thunderstorm activity has increased slightly in this wave over the past day, and it has the potential to gradually develop into a tropical depression by early next week. NHC is giving this wave a low (less than 30% chance) of developing into a tropical depression by Sunday. The GFS model continues to predict development of this wave into a tropical depression early next week.

I'll have an update Saturday or Sunday, depending upon developments in the tropics.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting lavinia:


Erika's theme song should be "I love the night life, I got to boogie"

Sorry...you're probably all too young to remember it. :)


I'm not to young for that song..... "I Love It"
hehehe
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1475. Patrap
Quoting taco2me61:
Patrap are you still on and if so do you think there is a Low trying to form in the GOM????


Upper Low Mid Gulf,..May be interesting in the Sw Gom Come Sat-Sun
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1474. Patrap
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Patrap are you still on and if so do you think there is a Low trying to form in the GOM????
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1471. 7544
caribiean blob going north ?
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I got a pal working in a rig on the GOM, wish nothing but zero formation over there (sorry, surfers)
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1467. Patrap
GOM
60 Hour Surface Current Forecast Model
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Quoting JLPR:
im starting to think Erika is trying to revive itself

Link
she lives!
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1465. Patrap
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1464. Patrap
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1463. lavinia
Quoting 7544:


agree thats why im giving her another dmx tonight we all know how she like that hour lol


Erika's theme song should be "I love the night life, I got to boogie"

Sorry...you're probably all too young to remember it. :)
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1461. Patrap
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1460. Patrap




NEXRAD Radar
New Orleans, Storm Relative Mean Radial Velocity 0.50 Degree Elevation Range 124 NMI



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1458. JLPR
Quoting iceman55:
JLPR ??


although Erika's vorticity at all levels is decoupled so I don't expect much
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I am watching a show on the Discovery Channel, Earthshocks: Hyper Hurricanes... excellent show :)
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1455. 7544
Quoting JLPR:
im starting to think Erika is trying to revive itself

Link


agree thats why im giving her another dmx tonight we all know how she like that hour lol
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1453. JLPR
im starting to think Erika is trying to revive itself

Link
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AOI

AOI

AOI

AOI
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Quoting Magicchaos:
My public advisory on Dujuan for 11PM


Dang... a 45mph 980mb system?

I got this Link off that gives good info in plain ole understandable English. Arrr (international speak like a pirate day is sept 9th people remember it)
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TCFA for Indian Ocean

TCFA Graphic

Has favorable environment, but close to land.
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1447. JLPR
interesting


95L looking sad and the low in front of it is looking better
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Has a new low level center formed southeast of PR - reflection in San Juan long range radar:
http://radar.weather.gov/radar.php?rid=JUA&product=N0Z&overlay=11101111&loop=yes
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1445. 7544
agree tampa the area at 15n looks like it could do well at damax might be 96l ?

also giving ex eriaka another dmax tonight to see what happens cause the midels did kill her off as she is now but also brang her back so just watching for now thers is a spin in the rainbow idk
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Quoting serialteg:


Towards Florida/GOM? XD


I would never suggest that.....LOL
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My public advisory on Dujuan for 11PM
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Erika remnants leaving 7+ inches of rain in the SW and NE corners or PR

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1440. docrod
Quoting serialteg:


jeez ... erika refuses to die ... just like the plants that have invaded my front lawn


Good luck - I have both plant (too much rain) and plumbing issues this labor day - however - nice not to be sweating systems for the next few ... - take care - happy labor day weekend all!!
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Quoting TampaSpin:
And it will continue toward the WEST


Towards Florida/GOM? XD
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Quoting docrod:


and a second opinion ....

Link


jeez ... erika refuses to die ... just like the plants that have invaded my front lawn
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15N 38W has a good chance of developing. It has a very good Vorticity return at the lower and mid levels.......And it will continue toward the WEST
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1435. rxse7en
Quoting CaicosRetiredSailor:
Meanwhile, looking to the East:




one could say: "The East is Red"
The lows over africa seem to lose a lot of convection when they exit off into the atlantic based on radar imagery. Are those storms picking up their moisture from the moist jungles or what?
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The National Weather service forecasters in San Juan were predicting this morning that the midlevel low or one of the centers of Erika may redevelop a low pressure center north of the PR Saturday or Sunday. Does this still appear to be the case or is the system just to sheared for any potential development. NHC still has a shade of yellow giving a 30% chance or less of something developing again in the vicinity of PR. Thoughts? Analysis. . . or should this be put to bed tonight once and for all.
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1433. docrod
Quoting winter123:
may be a mid level low SE of Puerto Rico



and a second opinion ....

Link
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does anyone think a storm will retire this year or will it be a sea season like 06
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Quoting winter123:
Wow... tropical lull worldwide. Just one typhoon and a bunch of weak swirls. And its the peak of the season!


That's borderline wishcasting, sir :)

Seriously, "don't call on the devil..."

There should be a Groundhog for Hurricane Forecasts
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Quoting stormsurge39:
Is the area in SW Caribbean an AOI for potential developement or not?


Nope it is not...its just upper divergence is all......it will disapate in a few hours..
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1429. JLPR
Quoting winter123:
may be a mid level low SE of Puerto Rico



yep it looks like its the Mid level low
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456 viman,I remember going to St. Thomas during a cruise, we stoped there during the afternoon. I was about to go into the ocean when two people around my age were walking away. They told me somthing of the effect after I said what I was doing "Duck that man, there sharks in there."

As our cruise ship was pulling up to the dock at Charlotte Amalie harbor in St. Thomas, my brother and I were watching three white tip reef sharks, each about 5-6 foot length, swimming along side the cruise ship. This was 200 feet away from where people were swimming and snorkeling on the beach.

Later that day, we were snorkeling off St. John in about 30-feet of water... we found out later that at the same time a lady 1-mile down the beach from us got bit by a shark.

Tip: If the locals don't seem to be swimming, then don't. They know when to avoid wading in the surf.
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Quoting justmehouston:
Let's see how good I am at guessing ...
AOI = Area Of Intrest?


That is indeed true!
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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