Arctic temperatures the warmest in 2,000 years; 2009 Arctic sea ice loss 3rd highest

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:32 PM GMT on September 04, 2009

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It's time to take a bit of a break from coverage of the Atlantic hurricane season of 2009, and report on some important climate news. The past decade was the warmest decade in the Arctic for the past 2,000 years, according to a study called "Recent Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling" published today in the journal Science. Furthermore, four of the five warmest decades in the past 2,000 years occurred between 1950 - 2000, despite the fact that summertime solar radiation in the Arctic has been steadily declining for the past 2,000 years. Previous efforts to reconstruct past climate in the Arctic extended back only 400 years, so the new study--which used lake sediments, glacier ice cores, and tree rings to look at past climate back to the time of Christ, decade by decade-- is a major new milestone in our understanding of the Arctic climate. The researchers found that Arctic temperatures steadily declined between 1 A.D. and 1900 A.D., as would be expected due to a 26,000-year cycle in Earth's orbit that brought less summer sunshine to the North Pole. Earth is now about 620,000 miles (1 million km) farther from the Sun in the Arctic summer than it was 2000 years ago. However, temperatures in the Arctic began to rise around the year 1900, and are now 1.4°C (2.5°F) warmer than they should be, based on the amount of sunlight that is currently falling in the Arctic in summer. "If it hadn't been for the increase in human-produced greenhouse gases, summer temperatures in the Arctic should have cooled gradually over the last century," Bette Otto-Bliesner, a co-author from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, said in a statement.

The Arctic melt season of 2009
Arctic sea ice suffered another summer of significant melting in 2009, with August ice extent the third lowest on record, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. August ice extent was 19% below the 1979 - 2000 average, and only 2007 and 2008 saw more melting of Arctic sea ice. We've now had two straight years in the Arctic without a new record minimum in sea ice. However, this does not mean that the Arctic sea ice is recovering. The reduced melting in 2009 compared to 2007 and 2008 primarily resulted from a different atmospheric circulation pattern this summer. This pattern generated winds that transported ice toward the Siberian coast and discouraged export of ice out of the Arctic Ocean. The previous two summers, the prevailing wind pattern acted to transport more ice out of the Arctic through Fram Strait, along the east side of Greenland. At last December's meeting of the American Geophysical Union, the world's largest scientific conference on climate change, J.E. Kay of the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that Arctic surface pressure in the summer of 2007 was the fourth highest since 1948, and cloud cover at Barrow, Alaska was the sixth lowest. This suggests that once every 10 - 20 years a "perfect storm" of weather conditions highly favorable for ice loss invades the Arctic. The last two times such conditions existed was 1977 and 1987, and it may be another ten or so years before weather conditions align properly to set a new record minimum.

The Northeast Passage opens
As a result of this summer's melting, the Northeast Passage, a notoriously ice-choked sea route along the northern Russia, is now clear of ice and open for navigation. Satellite analyses by the University of Illinois Polar Research Group and the National Snow and Ice Data Center show that the last remaining ice blockage along the north coast of Russia melted in late August, allowing navigation from Europe to Alaska in ice-free waters. Mariners have been attempting to sail the Northeast Passage since 1553, and it wasn't until the record-breaking Arctic sea-ice melt year of 2005 that the Northeast Passage opened for ice-free navigation for the first time in recorded history. The fabled Northwest Passage through the Arctic waters of Canada has remained closed this summer, however. An atmospheric pressure pattern set up in late July that created winds that pushed old, thick ice into several of the channels of the Northwest Passage. Recent research by Stephen Howell at the University of Waterloo in Canada shows that whether the Northwest Passage clears depends less on how much melt occurs, and more on whether multi-year sea ice is pushed into the channels. Counter-intuitively, as the ice cover thins, ice may flow more easily into the channels, preventing the Northwest Passage from regularly opening in coming decades, if the prevailing winds set up to blow ice into the channels of the Passage. The Northwest Passage opened for the first time in recorded history in 2007, and again in 2008. Mariners have been attempting to find a route through the Northwest Passage since 1497.


Figure 1. Sea ice extent on September 2, 2009, with the Northwest Passage (red line) and Northeast Passage (green line) shown. The Northeast Passage was open, but the Northwest Passage was blocked in three places. The orange line shows the median edge of sea ice extent for September 2 during the period 1979 - 2000, and this year's ice extent is about 19% below average. Image credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Commercial shipping begins in the Northeast Passage
This year's opening marks the fourth time in five years that the Northeast Passage has opened, and commercial shipping companies are taking note. Two German ships set off on August 21 on the first commercial voyage ever made through the Northeast Passage without the help of icebreakers. The Northeast Passage trims 4,500 miles off the 12,500 mile trip through the Suez Canal, yielding considerable savings in fuel. The voyage was not possible last year, because Russia had not yet worked out a permitting process. With Arctic sea ice expected to continue to decline in the coming decades, shipping traffic through the Northeast Passage will likely become commonplace most summers.

When was the Northeast Passage ice-free in the past?
People have been attempting to penetrate the ice-bound Northeast Passage since 1553, when British explorer Sir Hugh Willoughby attempted the passage with three ships and 62 men. The frozen bodies of Sir Hugh and his men were found a year later, after they failed to make it past the northern coast of Finland. British explorer Henry Hudson, who died in 1611 trying to find a route through Canada's fabled Northwest Passage, (and whom Canada's Hudson Bay and New York's Hudson River are named after), attempted to sail the Northeast Passage in 1607 and 1608, and failed. The Northeast Passage has remained closed to navigation, except via assist by icebreakers, from 1553 to 2005. The results published in Science today suggest that prior to 2005, the last previous opening was the period 5,000 - 7,000 years ago, when the Earth's orbital variations brought more sunlight to the Arctic in summer than at present. It is possible we'll know better soon. A new technique that examines organic compounds left behind in Arctic sediments by diatoms that live in sea ice give hope that a detailed record of sea ice extent extending back to the end of the Ice Age 12,000 years ago may be possible (Belt et al., 2007). The researchers are studying sediments along the Northwest Passage in hopes of being able to determine when the Passage was last open.

References
Belt, S.T., G. Masse, S.J. Rowland, M. Poulin, C. Michel, and B. LeBlanc, "A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25", Organic Geochemistry, Volume 38, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 16-27.

Darrell S. Kaufman, David P. Schneider, Nicholas P. McKay, Caspar M. Ammann, Raymond S. Bradley, Keith R. Briffa, Gifford H. Miller, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Jonathan T. Overpeck, Bo M. Vinther, and Arctic Lakes 2k Project Members, 2009, "Recent Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling", Science 4 September 2009: 1236-1239.

Howell, S. E. L., C. R. Duguay, and T. Markus. 2009. Sea ice conditions and melt season duration variability within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 1979.2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10502, doi:10.1029/2009GL037681.

Tropical Weather Outlook
The remains of Tropical Storm Erika are bringing heavy rain to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands today, and this activity will spread to the Dominican Republic on Saturday. Radar-estimated rainfall shows up to three inches of rain has fallen in eastern Puerto Rico from the storm. Long range radar out of Puerto Rico shows no surface circulation or organization of the echoes, and redevelopment of Erika over the next three days is unlikely to occur due to high wind shear of 25 - 30 knots. By Monday or Tuesday, shear may drop enough to allow redevelopment, depending upon the location of Erika's remains. Redevelopment is more likely if Erika works its way northwestward into the Bahamas.

A large tropical wave with plenty of spin is located a few hundred miles southwest of the Cape Verdes Islands, off the coast of Africa. Heavy thunderstorm activity has increased slightly in this wave over the past day, and it has the potential to gradually develop into a tropical depression by early next week. NHC is giving this wave a low (less than 30% chance) of developing into a tropical depression by Sunday. The GFS model continues to predict development of this wave into a tropical depression early next week.

I'll have an update Saturday or Sunday, depending upon developments in the tropics.

Jeff Masters

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1776. Dakster
NRT - THANKS for the update on the QuickScat. Glad to see theya re still hopefule of a recovery. I would hate to lose that Sat!
I was getting worried since we haven't had a good run in a couple of days.


Stormw - as always thanks for the analysis and update.
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Quoting StormW:
Morning Orca!


Hey Storm, hows it going
I just looked, and most of the models are showing a small Homegrown East Coast system going to NY, do you see anything to support it?
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
Quoting lawntonlookers:
456

I see you comment about the eclipses of the satellites. I understand the geostationary orbits of the satellites and the fact that they are around 22,000 miles up, but I don’t understand why they would have an eclipse when there is nothing big between them and the earth. Why the eclipse?


The most I know is that the satellites have to enter the earth's shadow but post 1767 explain why.
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what about the gulf. any development. early in the week they where something possible in Texas or Louisiana
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thank you for commenting on the ex-ericka/upper low possibility in your blog StormW. Weather can be unpredictable at times as we all know, just it good to know you are not dismissing the hopefully very low possibility of a party getting started over the bahamas.
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Quoting StormW:
TROPICAL SYNOPSIS "QUICKCAST" SEPTEMBER 05, 2009 ISSUED 10:10 A.M. EDT

Morning Storm!

I LOVE your analysis of Erika - what is in your mornin' coffee? Thanks for the weekend update.

Member Since: September 5, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 3488
Quoting lawntonlookers:
456

I see you comment about the eclipses of the satellites. I understand the geostationary orbits of the satellites and the fact that they are around 22,000 miles up, but I don’t understand why they would have an eclipse when there is nothing big between them and the earth. Why the eclipse?



KOZ (KEEP OUT ZONE) / ECLIPSE

The GOES satellites encounter two periods, during the year, which the satellites are in the Earth’s shadow. Known as the Eclipse season, these periods require the spacecraft to be totally dependent on onboard batteries for a maximum of 72 minutes daily. Eclipse’s occur from about February 28 - April 11 and August 31 - October 13. The Imager and Sounder instruments are powered down to conserve power, until the daily eclipse is over. There is a significant risk of the sun light directly entering the scanners, as the spacecraft enters and leaves the Earth’s shadow, requiring the Imager and Sounder to be idle prior to and following eclipse. This is known as the “Keep Out Zone”. The seasonal charts describe the GOES-East and GOES-West Imager and Sounder scan frames that are canceled, due to KOZ/ECLIPSE.


Link
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Quoting StormW:
TROPICAL SYNOPSIS "QUICKCAST" SEPTEMBER 05, 2009 ISSUED 10:10 A.M. EDT

As always TY for update!
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It appears as if the U.S. should be unaffected by any Cape Verde system for the rest of the season. There's been a lot of troughing in the eastern U.S. and as September goes by, troughs start to dig deeper into the tropical Atlantic, putting an end to the Cape Verde season.

The western Caribbean is the place to start watching in a couple of weeks, as waters there are very warm ("virgin water") and systems which form there generally move northward anyway.
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Models:

CMC has an east coast homegrown system going to NY City

GFS has the next system coming off of Africa turning into a Monster (going no where) with support from the CMC also.

mm5fsu-gfs has the next systems coming off Africa also being a monster.. but going somewhere. It also confirms the system to NY

mm5fsu-merge same same

NGP basically a shorter run, but shows the African system, and the start of the NY system.

Now that should be enough to get some weather conversation going again :)

Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
Quoting Dakster:
Did QuickScat suffer a catastrophic failure?


They have not indicated that. Update from last night:

RECOVERY OF THE INSTRUMENT THIS MORNING AND HAD UNEXPECTED RESULTS. WE`VE BEEN ANALYZING DATA, AND WILL PICK UP THE RECOVERY FIRST THING IN THE MORNING. WE ARE HOPEFUL THAT WE WILL HAVE GOOD SCI DATA BACK ON LINE BY THE END OF THE DAY TOMORROW.


Link
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456

I see you comment about the eclipses of the satellites. I understand the geostationary orbits of the satellites and the fact that they are around 22,000 miles up, but I don’t understand why they would have an eclipse when there is nothing big between them and the earth. Why the eclipse?
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Quoting Weather456:


I think you mean the upper low north of Puerto Rico....

the feature appears to continue sw or wsw and weaken when near Cuba

Also its a TUTT cell, not really something you would look for TC development.

oh, ok thank you
anything the swirls raises my eyebrows
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Quoting CybrTeddy:


Then we're in trouble from the 2011 Atlantic Hurricane Season onward basically. That's very unfortunate, seeing as also a launch vehicle is available still. Delta II, IV, Atlas V and maybe even the Falcon 1 if they ever decide to launch NASA or NOAA Payloads.


They still don't have a solid commitment for funding to develop the instrument much less funding for a launch. Current plan is to install an instrument on a Japanese satellite scheduled for launch 2015-2016.
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1756. Dakster
Did QuickScat suffer a catastrophic failure?
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i think they are planing on droping 95L soon mode runs do not take 95L any higher then 28kt
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115123
Quoting sarahjola:
weather456
yes she is but still an intersesting storm. well, she was. so where is that feature headed? will it get into the gulf and become nothing or something? talking about feature that looks to be headed to florida.

Like an answer to that also!
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Quoting sarahjola:
weather456
yes she is but still an intersesting storm. well, she was. so where is that feature headed? will it get into the gulf and become nothing or something? talking about feature that looks to be headed to florida.


I think you mean the upper low north of Puerto Rico....

the feature appears to continue sw or wsw and weaken when near Cuba

Also its a TUTT cell, not really something you would look for TC development.
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The names in the Atlantic are from English, Spanish and French origins (the countries that share the tropics) so they will not likely run out of names right now.

Some examples

Georges (French)
Juan (Spanish)
Stan (English)
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weather456
yes she is but still an intersesting storm. well, she was. so where is that feature headed? will it get into the gulf and become nothing or something? talking about feature that looks to be headed to florida.
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Quoting hurricanemaniac123:


Also in 2005, Katrina will be replaced by Katita, Rita replaced by Rina, and Stan replaced by Sean! They are easily running out of names.


Yeah. I noticed Rina. For crying out loud! They coulda got a little different.
Member Since: August 15, 2008 Posts: 10 Comments: 3665
1748. aquak9
Nothing wrong with naming your child Fiona. Better than naming your child Drakoen...

(ducks and runs)
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Quoting CybrTeddy:


Then we're screwed in the 2011 Atlantic Hurricane Season onward basically. That's very unfortunate, seeing as also a launch vehicle is available still. Delta II, IV, Atlas V and maybe even the Falcon 1 if they ever decide to launch NASA or NOAA Payloads.


You can always ask the Russians or the French to launch it for you.. or even the Israelis.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:


It is a shame the best they can do is a replacement in 2016. Even if the instruments on QuikScat continue to operate, it runs out of fuel in about two years and will then be unable to maintain proper postion.


Then we're in trouble from the 2011 Atlantic Hurricane Season onward basically. That's very unfortunate, seeing as also a launch vehicle is available still. Delta II, IV, Atlas V and maybe even the Falcon 1 if they ever decide to launch NASA or NOAA Payloads.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 24033
Quoting Weather456:


try refreshing the page, or close and open back.

GOES-12 satellite have been experiencing eclipses so over the past couple of week, we werent receiving images between 11PM and 3AM. I think the time period shortens until the eclipse is over.

2009 Fall Eclipse Season and subsequent solar interference will cause data
outages and degradations during the following time periods:


Satellite Dates Times

GOES-10 (ecl) 08/20/09 - 10/25/09 0245UTC - 0540UTC
GOES-10 (rfi- 1532UTC - 1544UTC
Wallops)

GOES-11 (ecl) 08/13/09 - 10/26/09 0745UTC - 1040UTC
GOES-11 (rfi- 2115UTC - 2127UTC
Wallops)

GOES-12 (ecl) 08/14/09 - 10/30/09 0345UTC - 0636UTC
GOES-12 (rfi- 1639UTC - 1651UTC
Wallops)

GOES-14 (ecl)
GOES-14 (rfi-
Wallops)

Meteosat-7 08/14/09 - 10/03/09 1900UTC - 2130UTC

MTSAT-1R 8/25/09 - 09/01/09 1330UTC - 1513UTC
(local rfi up to 20 minutes between 1820UTC - 1910UTC)

FY2C 1600UTC - 1830UTC

FY2D 1730UTC - 1930UTC

GILMORE(rfi) 1830UTC - 1910UTC
(local rfi up to 20 minutes between 1820UTC - 1910UTC)

NOAAPORT (rfi) 1830UTC - 1910UTC
(local up to 20 minutes between 1820UTC - 1910UTC)

thanks
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Quoting Cotillion:


Never quite understood why they did. Frederic has been retired yeah, from 1979.

Like, they used both Diana and Diane.


Also in 2005, Katrina will be replaced by Katita, Rita replaced by Rina, and Stan replaced by Sean! They are easily running out of names.
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Quoting Cotillion:


And another funny one (though not quite as awesome as that):

Link

Seriously, why would you wanna give your child such a bad name so they're bullied forever? Makes no sense to me...


Lol. Reading the comments section, I feel for Richard Burton. I was named after a famous actress with one letter difference. Forget Googling yourself. Lol. Gotta love parents. :)
Member Since: August 15, 2008 Posts: 10 Comments: 3665
Global Warming has easily become as divisive as Religion and Politics in General mainly because it has characteristics of both on both sides.

From the very far left and very far right, believing or not believing in GW has intertwined itself into each others politics to the point that the issue can't be easily divided from the rhetoric.

And add to the fact that there really are people on both sides who either worship the trees and the Earth OR swear that God would not allow His creation to be destroyed, it's a quasi-religious as well.

Personally, every time I see a blog that espouses Global Warming I usually skip them to avoid it altogether.
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Quoting Orcasystems:



If I had taken them.. they would already be posted in the blog... but since I didn't, I am just asking them if I can post them.

I have actually found a spot where they have already posted the pictures in their family sharing photo folder... but still waiting for them to answer

Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
Quoting kmanislander:


Many thanks. This type of thing has happened before. One of these times there will be no recovery.

It is a shame that for years all we have heard is talk about this satellite that is well beyond its design life.


It is a shame the best they can do is a replacement in 2016. Even if the instruments on QuikScat continue to operate, it runs out of fuel in about two years and will then be unable to maintain proper postion.
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Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:


It had an "anomaly" two days ago, they are still trying to recover.

QUIKSCAT DATA HAS BEEN UNAVAILABLE SINCE ABOUT 3/2200Z.
NASA AND NESDIS EXPECT THE DATA OUTAGE TO CONTINUE FOR AN
EXTENDED TIME. THERE IS SOME HOPE THAT THE RECOVERY FROM
INSTRUMENT PROBLEMS WILL BE COMPLETED LATER TODAY.


Link


Many thanks. This type of thing has happened before. One of these times there will be no recovery.

It is a shame that for years all we have heard is talk about this satellite that is well beyond its design life.
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Quoting Dakster:


You wouldn't want to be banned for posting weather pictures on a weather blog...



If I had taken them.. they would already be posted in the blog... but since I didn't, I am just asking them if I can post them.

I have actually found a spot where they have already been posted the pictures in their family sharing photo folder... but still waiting for them to answer
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
Quoting kmanislander:
Good morning

Does anyone know what happened to Quikscat ?.

No data has downloaded from the satellite in the past two days.

TIA


it had power outages problems earlier so the data is offline
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Quoting kmanislander:
Good morning

Does anyone know what happened to Quikscat ?.

No data has downloaded from the satellite in the past two days.

TIA


It had an "anomaly" two days ago, they are still trying to recover.

QUIKSCAT DATA HAS BEEN UNAVAILABLE SINCE ABOUT 3/2200Z.
NASA AND NESDIS EXPECT THE DATA OUTAGE TO CONTINUE FOR AN
EXTENDED TIME. THERE IS SOME HOPE THAT THE RECOVERY FROM
INSTRUMENT PROBLEMS WILL BE COMPLETED LATER TODAY.


Link
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Quoting sarahjola:
or is she going to join forces with another system? weather456 mentioned it. where is that low headed? it looks to be west with a little south mixed in. just an untrained eye looking here.


yea she could merge with the stalled feature along the east coast but thats only if she does not dissipate completely before then. Frankly Erika is almost gone.
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1733. Dakster
Quoting Orcasystems:
I just got emailed some very good pictures from the storm in Ont in the 3rd week of July... I just sent them a reply email asking for permission to post them in the Blog... actually they are spectacular pictures of the weather.


You wouldn't want to be banned for posting weather pictures on a weather blog...

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Good morning

Does anyone know what happened to Quikscat ?.

No data has downloaded from the satellite in the past two days.

TIA
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Quoting Orcasystems:


Like myself... Sweet & Innocent


haha...ok..,btw thanks for your images and blog they are always appreciated
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1730. Ossqss
Do you see this in our future? L8R

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Quoting Cotillion:


As has been said.. towards the end of the month things could get interesting again.

CFS has it weaker (as it always does though showing deep subsidence right now) but still shows something coming in early October.


The CFS, GFS, and the EWP has been forecasting favorable MJO conditions for the month October. Apparently, the CFS is now forecasting unusual troughing over the eastern U.S, which is quite a typical steering current for October. As those troughs kink southward, they help moisture to surge out of the SW Caribbean. The SW Caribbean will be the primary place to look for tropical cyclone development, because it is usually the area of lowest shear and warmest SSTs during October. The incredibly high SSTs in the southern Gulf should propagate southward later this season, warming the SW Caribbean waters significantly. Now, warm SSTs and favorable MJO are two factors that will help development there, but one important remain--wind shear. The CFS is forecasting above average shearing across the Caribbean, and that would hamper development there if it were to occur. Hurricane Paloma is good example of this. However, keep in mind that the effects of westerly shear are lessened when the a tropical cyclone is moving the same direction as the upper level winds. According to a reasonable post made by Weather456, made a couple of days ago, that does make sense, because the tropical cyclone would have less upper-level-wind drag-resistance. Hurricane Wilma is a good example of this, because it strengthened despite shear, but that was partly due to its immense magnitude. If the troughing anomalies are too high over the eastern U.S., than the steering currents would drive ENE toward Cuba and the Bahamas (I.e Michelle, and Paloma).

All in all, October has 67 percent chance of being an above average month.

Favorable Conditions: Warm SSTs MJO.

Unfavorable Conditions: High shear

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Quoting sarahjola:
why hasn't the nhc updated their sat. imagery? still showing from last night. erika still has not gone away. she is still lurking like a serial killer in the night gonna pop up on us and catch us all off guard


try refreshing the page, or close and open back.

GOES-12 satellite have been experiencing eclipses so over the past couple of week, we werent receiving images between 11PM and 3AM. I think the time period shortens until the eclipse is over.

2009 Fall Eclipse Season and subsequent solar interference will cause data
outages and degradations during the following time periods:


Satellite Dates Times

GOES-10 (ecl) 08/20/09 - 10/25/09 0245UTC - 0540UTC
GOES-10 (rfi- 1532UTC - 1544UTC
Wallops)

GOES-11 (ecl) 08/13/09 - 10/26/09 0745UTC - 1040UTC
GOES-11 (rfi- 2115UTC - 2127UTC
Wallops)

GOES-12 (ecl) 08/14/09 - 10/30/09 0345UTC - 0636UTC
GOES-12 (rfi- 1639UTC - 1651UTC
Wallops)

GOES-14 (ecl)
GOES-14 (rfi-
Wallops)

Meteosat-7 08/14/09 - 10/03/09 1900UTC - 2130UTC

MTSAT-1R 8/25/09 - 09/01/09 1330UTC - 1513UTC
(local rfi up to 20 minutes between 1820UTC - 1910UTC)

FY2C 1600UTC - 1830UTC

FY2D 1730UTC - 1930UTC

GILMORE(rfi) 1830UTC - 1910UTC
(local rfi up to 20 minutes between 1820UTC - 1910UTC)

NOAAPORT (rfi) 1830UTC - 1910UTC
(local up to 20 minutes between 1820UTC - 1910UTC)
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or is she going to join forces with another system? weather456 mentioned it. where is that low headed? it looks to be west with a little south mixed in. just an untrained eye looking here.
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Quoting Orcasystems:


I never trusted that Betty... she was to S&I, I think it was a front.


It was the walk!
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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