Sea level rise: what has happened so far

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:05 PM GMT on June 10, 2009

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Sea level has been rising globally since the late 1700s. This rise has accelerated in recent decades, thanks to increased melting of glaciers and ice sheets due to a warmer climate, plus the fact that warmer oceans are less dense and expand, further increasing sea level. Though sea level rise appears to have slowed over the past five years, it will significantly accelerate if the climate warms the 2 - 3°C it is expected to this century. If these forecasts of a warmer world prove accurate, higher sea levels will be a formidable challenge for millions of people world-wide during the last half of this century. Sea level rise represents one of my personal top two climate change concerns (drought is the other). I'll present a series of blog posts over the coming months focusing on at-risk areas in the U.S., Caribbean, and world-wide. Today, I focus on the observed sea level rise since the Ice Age.

What's at stake
Higher sea levels mean increased storm surge inundation, coastal erosion, loss of low-lying land areas, and salt water contamination of underground drinking water supplies. About 44% of the Earth's 6.7 billion people live within 150 km (93 miles) of the coast, and 600 million people live at an elevation less than ten meters (33 feet). Eight of the ten largest cities in the world are sited on the ocean coast. In the U.S., the coastal population has doubled over the past 50 years. Fourteen of the twenty largest urban centers are located within 100 km of the coast, and are less than ten meters above sea level (McGranahan et al., 2007). The population of many vulnerable coastal regions are expected to double by 2050, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.

Sea level rise since the Ice Age
Before the most recent Ice Age, sea level was about 4 - 6 meters (13 - 20 feet) higher than at present. Then, during the Ice Age, sea level dropped 120 meters (395 ft) as water evaporated from the oceans precipitated out onto the great land-based ice sheets. The former ocean water remained frozen in those ice sheets during the Ice Age, but began being released 12,000 - 15,000 years ago as the Ice Age ended and the climate warmed. Sea level increased about 115 meters over a several thousand year period, rising 40 mm/year (1.6"/yr) during one 500-year pulse of melting 14,600 years ago. The rate of sea level rise slowed to 11 mm/year (0.43"/yr) during the period 7,000 - 14,000 years ago (Bard et al., 1996), then further slowed to 0.5 mm/yr 6,000 - 3,000 years ago. About 2,000 - 3,000 years ago, the sea level stopped rising, and remained fairly steady until the late 1700s (IPCC 2007). One exception to this occurred during the Medieval Warm Period of 1100 - 1200 A.D., when warm conditions similar to today's climate caused the sea level to rise 5 - 8" (12 - 21 cm) higher than present (Grinsted et al., 2008). This was probably the highest the sea has been since the beginning of the Ice Age, 110,000 years ago. There is a fair bit of uncertainty in all these estimates, since we don't have direct measurements of the sea level.


Figure 1. Global sea level from 200 A.D. to 2000, as reconstructed from proxy records of sea level by Moberg et al. 2005. The thick black line is reconstructed sea level using tide gauges (Jevrejeva, 2006). The lightest gray shading shows the 5 - 95% uncertainty in the estimates, and the medium gray shading denotes the one standard deviation error estimate. The highest global sea level of the past 110,000 years likely occurred during the Medieval Warm Period of 1100 - 1200 A.D., when warm conditions similar to today's climate caused the sea level to rise 5 - 8" (12 - 21 cm) higher than present. Image credit: Grinsted, A., J.C. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva, 2009, "Reconstructing sea level from paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100 AD", Climate Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s00382-008-0507-2, 06 January 2009.

Sea level rise over the past 300 years
Direct measurements of sea level using tide gauges began in Amsterdam in 1700. Additional tide gauges began recording data in Liverpool, England in 1768 and in Stockholm, Sweden in 1774. These gauges suggest that a steady acceleration of sea rise of 0.01 mm per year squared began in the late 1700s, resulting in a rise in sea level of 2.4" (6 cm, 0.6 mm/yr) during the 19th century and 7.5" (19 cm, 1.9 mm/yr) during the 20th century (Jevrejeva et al., 2008). There is considerable uncertainty in just how much sea level rise has occurred over the past few centuries, though. Measuring global average sea level rise is a very tricky business. For starters, one must account for the tides, which depend on the positions of the Earth and Moon on a cycle that repeats itself once every 18.6 years. Tide gauges are scattered, with varying lengths of record. The data must be corrected since land is sinking in some regions, due to pumping of ground water, oil and gas extraction, and natural compaction of sediments. Also, the land is rising in other regions, such as Northern Europe, where it is rebounding from the lost weight of the melted glaciers that covered the region during the last Ice Age. Ocean currents, precipitation, and evaporation can cause a 20 inch (50 cm) difference in sea level in different portions of the ocean. As a result of all this uncertainty, the 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report gave a range of 4 - 10" (10 - 25 cm) for the observed sea level rise of the 20th century. The 2007 IPCC report narrowed this range a bit, to 5 - 9" (12 - 22 cm), or 1.2 - 2.2 mm/year. Rates of sea level rise are much higher in many regions. In the U.S., the highest rates of sea-level rise are along the Mississippi Delta region--over 10 mm/yr, or 1 inch/2.5 years (USGS, 2006). This large relative rise is due, in large part, to the fact that the land is sinking.


Figure 2. Absolute sea level rise between 1955 and 2003 as computed from tide gauges and satellite imagery data. The data has been corrected for the rising or sinking of land due to crustal motions or subsidence of the land, so the relative sea level rise along the coast will be different than this. The total rise (in inches) for the 48-year period is given in the top scale, and the rate in mm/year is given in the bottom scale. The regional sea level variations shown here resulted not only from the input of additional water from melting of glaciers and ice caps, but also from changes in ocean temperature and density, as well as changes in precipitation, ocean currents, and river discharge. Image credit: IPCC, 2007

Sea level rise over the past 15 years
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007 report, sea level accelerated from the 1.2 - 2.2 mm/yr observed during the 20th century to 3.1 mm/year during the period 1993 - 2003. These estimates come from high resolution measurements from satellite radar altimeters, which began in 1992. Tide gauges showed a similar level of sea level rise during that ten-year period. The IPCC attributed more than half of this rise (1.6 mm/yr) to the fact that the ocean expanded in size due to increased temperatures. Another 1.2 mm/yr rise came from melting of Greenland, West Antarctica, and other land-based ice, and about 10% of the rise was unaccounted for. However, during the period 2003 - 2008, sea level rise slowed to 2.5 mm/year, according to measurements of Earth's gravity from the GRACE satellites (Cazenave et al., 2008). This reduction in sea level rise probably occurred because ocean sea surface temperatures have not warmed since 2003 (Figure 3). The authors concluded that sea level rise due to ocean warming decreased more than a factor of five from 2003 - 2008, compared to 1993 - 2003, contributing only 0.3 mm/yr vs. the 1.6 mm/yr previously.


Figure 3. Global average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from 1990-2008. SSTs have not increased in the past seven years. Image credit: NASA/GISS.

For more information
The best source of information I found while compiling my sea level pages was the Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region report by the U.S. Climate Science Program. It has a huge number of references to all the latest science being done on sea level rise.

References
Bard, E., et al., 1996, "Sea level record from Tahiti corals and the timing of deglacial meltwater discharge", Nature 382, pp241-244, doi:10.1038/382241a0.

Cazenave et al., 2008, "Sea level budget over 2003-2008: A reevaluation from satellite altimetry and Argo", Global and Planetary Change, 2008; DOI:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.10.004

Grinsted, A., J.C. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva, 2009, "Reconstructing sea level from paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100 AD", Climate Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s00382-008-0507-2, 06 January 2009.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, 996 pp.

Jevrejeva, S., J.C. Moore, A. Grinsted,, and P.L. Woodworth, 2008, "Recent global sea level acceleration started over 200 years ago?", Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L08715, doi:10.1029/2008GL033611, 2008.

McGranahan, G., D. Balk, and B. Anderson, 2007, "The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones", Environment & Urbanization, 19(1), 17-37.

Moberg, A., et al., 2005, "Highly variable northern hemisphere temperature reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data", Nature 433, pp613-617, doi:10.1038/nature03265.

United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2006, National Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: Preliminary Results for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coast, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-179.

Tropical update
The tropical Atlantic is quiet, and the only region worth watching is the Western Caribbean, which could see formation of a tropical disturbance with heavy thunderstorm activity this weekend.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting Tazmanian:



Please say yes that you IM is fixs Please say yes it is


It's not.
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...aaaahhh, global warming! That means the tropics are all quiet! ;)
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Canberrans wake to sub-zero conditions
Thursday June 11, 2009

Frosty: Canberrans woke to sub-zero temperatures this morning. It was still 0 degrees at 9:00am.

Canberra has surprised weather forecasters by recording colder temperatures than surrounding rural regions this morning.

Sean Carson from the Bureau of Meteorology says temperatures in the ACT fell as low as minus 6 degrees celsius.

"When you look around this morning - Goulburn, Cooma(where my parents live), Braidwood, they're all only around minus 1C, minus 2C," he said.

"So it's very unusual for us to be colder than them."

Mr Carson says despite the cold start, Canberra should reach a top of 11 degrees today.

"A frost usually means clear skies, sunny days," he said.

"Only heading for 11C, it'll take a while to thaw out but a beautiful day with light winds. So get outside and enjoy it."

Mr Carson says the frosty conditions are expected to continue into the weekend.

© ABC 2009
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Quoting extreme236:


No 91E very likely to become a TD at the next advisory time...nice organization.


ROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
500 PM PDT WED JUN 10 2009

FOR THE EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC...EAST OF 140 DEGREES WEST LONGITUDE..

1. SHOWER ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE BROAD AREA OF LOW PRESSURE
LOCATED ABOUT 950 MILES SOUTHWEST OF THE SOUTHERN TIP OF BAJA
CALIFORNIA CONTINUES TO SHOW SIGNS OF ORGANIZATION. THIS SYSTEM HAS
THE POTENTIAL TO BECOME A TROPICAL DEPRESSION DURING THE NEXT
DAY OR SO. THERE IS A MEDIUM CHANCE...30 TO 50 PERCENT...OF THIS
SYSTEM BECOMING A TROPICAL CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.

ELSEWHERE...TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION IS NOT EXPECTED DURING THE
NEXT 48 HOURS.

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Stay safe TX2!
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Quoting JRRP:

Nov 2006
Link
Oct 2006
Link


Thanks. That wasn't as big a forecast as this year's, but it still was way too big. I guess we'll see how it pans out.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26700
473. TX2FL
Im at work hubby is at home giving me updates. I work at DFW airport and its nuts here we've evacuated everyone from windowed areas. He filmed and took pix..but the power is out or I'd post asap when I get home...

Thanks for the well wishes..makes me wish to be back in Florida!!!
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472. JRRP
Quoting Levi32:


I'm not saying it's not possible, but I do recall the CFS forecasting that kind of a bomb in 2006, and it never verified.

Nov 2006
Link
Oct 2006
Link
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454. Patrap ,

Too Funny, nothing like a good sense of humor!
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Quoting TX2FL:
North Texas here..
Tornado just knocked down a 50 year old big tree in front of my house, power is out, fence is down, grill went flying across the yard.

Crap...
Member Since: June 21, 2007 Posts: 10 Comments: 1657
Quoting TX2FL:
North Texas here..
Tornado just knocked down a 50 year old big tree in front of my house, power is out, fence is down, grill went flying across the yard.


Wow...glad you're ok!
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26700
Quoting Levi32:


I'm not saying it's not possible, but I do recall the CFS forecasting that kind of a bomb in 2006, and it never verified.

1996 El Nino was hell here in FL...so much rain.
Member Since: June 21, 2007 Posts: 10 Comments: 1657
Quoting TX2FL:
North Texas here..
Tornado just knocked down a 50 year old big tree in front of my house, power is out, fence is down, grill went flying across the yard.


Glad to hear you are ok!
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Quoting KoritheMan:


O_o wow



Please say yes that you IM is fixs Please say yes it is
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465. TX2FL
North Texas here..
Tornado just knocked down a 50 year old big tree in front of my house, power is out, fence is down, grill went flying across the yard.
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Quoting Tazmanian:
# Daniel Swain Says:
June 10th, 2009 at 10:28 am

More on the El Nino front–all dynamical models now forecast El Nino conditions for next winter. The CFS ensemble–which is probably the best one out there–is currently forecasting an upper-end moderate event, with some individual ensemble members calling for a strong El Nino of 1982 or even 1997 magnitude. Still a lot of time to go between now and then, but there now appears to be at least the potential for a strong El Nino event in 2009-2010 winter season. It has been twelve years since the last big event, and there was a 14 year gap between the previous two. This seems to be approximately the right return period for major events. Stay tuned…I do expect that the Seasonal Outlook will call for above normal precipitation in SoCal for next winter and perhaps in NorCal as well. There also could be some impact on summer weather (which may already be being felt). More this weekend…


I'm not saying it's not possible, but I do recall the CFS forecasting that kind of a bomb in 2006, and it never verified.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26700
Patrap, you crack me up!
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There is a "swirl" in the SW Caribbean because there is a stationary low there. However, shear tendency has also been rising so no likely development before the weekend at the soonest.

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Quoting Tazmanian:
# Daniel Swain Says:
June 10th, 2009 at 10:28 am

More on the El Nino front–all dynamical models now forecast El Nino conditions for next winter. The CFS ensemble–which is probably the best one out there–is currently forecasting an upper-end moderate event, with some individual ensemble members calling for a strong El Nino of 1982 or even 1997 magnitude. Still a lot of time to go between now and then, but there now appears to be at least the potential for a strong El Nino event in 2009-2010 winter season. It has been twelve years since the last big event, and there was a 14 year gap between the previous two. This seems to be approximately the right return period for major events. Stay tuned…I do expect that the Seasonal Outlook will call for above normal precipitation in SoCal for next winter and perhaps in NorCal as well. There also could be some impact on summer weather (which may already be being felt). More this weekend…


O_o wow
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# Daniel Swain Says:
June 10th, 2009 at 10:28 am

More on the El Nino front–all dynamical models now forecast El Nino conditions for next winter. The CFS ensemble–which is probably the best one out there–is currently forecasting an upper-end moderate event, with some individual ensemble members calling for a strong El Nino of 1982 or even 1997 magnitude. Still a lot of time to go between now and then, but there now appears to be at least the potential for a strong El Nino event in 2009-2010 winter season. It has been twelve years since the last big event, and there was a 14 year gap between the previous two. This seems to be approximately the right return period for major events. Stay tuned…I do expect that the Seasonal Outlook will call for above normal precipitation in SoCal for next winter and perhaps in NorCal as well. There also could be some impact on summer weather (which may already be being felt). More this weekend…
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.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26700
Quoting cjswilmingtoneye:

How can you be a 0 or 100% chance forecaster? I don’t believe you can ever be 0 or 100. If you’re 0 or 100 you are fortune telling in my opinion not forecasting. You can't just look at a tropical depression for instance, and say this will become a major hurricane that will hit this exact location. Especially when you’re like more than 36 hours out. Just using that as an example. Here's another: You can say that there is a chance for rain, but you cant predict where individual cells will pop up during the day. So I don’t believe you can ever be 0 % sure that something is not going to happen, or 100% sure that something is going to happen. Why? Because we are just humans, and unfortunately haven’t developed the technology to dictate to mother nature.


What are TAFS? They are a forecast for a 5 mile radius that something is either going to happen or not. You just look at the situation and make a decision. You do planners no good by saying there is a 50% chance something is going to happen. You make a call one way or another then pray you are right haha. Try it one day, track it and I bet your are right more times than wrong. Trust your skills.
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my other computer is down so I cant view loops
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Quoting stormpetrol:
11.8N/78.6W looks like a small swirl could be getting going.
i agree
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455. IKE
Quoting stormpetrol:
11.8N/78.6W looks like a small swirl could be getting going.


I see that.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37860
Quoting stormpetrol:
11.8N/78.6W looks like a small swirl could be getting going.



Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129844
Blog Update
Reflector site for those at work, which now also includes Weather456, daily updates


AOI #1

AOI #2
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11.8N/78.6W looks like a small swirl could be getting going.
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451. IKE
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37860
I'm not too sure but it looks like shear maybe letting up a bit in the NW caribbean.
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456.Weather is really unpredictable

That's a 100% true.
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Quoting Levi32:


A few of the low-level clouds at 81W 11N are stalling and drifting ESE, but I said low-level turning....that doesn't mean I'm calling it a closed low. It just means there is a cyclonic curvature of the surface wind field in association with the low.

Ah, ok. We are seeing the same thing, then.
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Quoting HaboobsRsweet:
As I said before I am a 0% or 100% chance forecaster so I look at an area and make a call.

As for South Texas, yes you are towards the western part of the high but if you live near the coast you will still get a sea breeze inthe afternoon (good temp contrast from land and sea) but that High is capping everything right now. Even your popcorn CU are flat haha.

How can you be a 0 or 100% chance forecaster? I don’t believe you can ever be 0 or 100. If you’re 0 or 100 you are fortune telling in my opinion not forecasting. You can't just look at a tropical depression for instance, and say this will become a major hurricane that will hit this exact location. Especially when you’re like more than 36 hours out. Just using that as an example. Here's another: You can say that there is a chance for rain, but you cant predict where individual cells will pop up during the day. So I don’t believe you can ever be 0 % sure that something is not going to happen, or 100% sure that something is going to happen. Why? Because we are just humans, and unfortunately haven’t developed the technology to dictate to mother nature.
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Quoting Weather456:
I always wondered how the blog would be if it existed in 2004. By July 30, almost everyone would think the season was a dud. What are the chances that 8 tropical cyclones would form over the next month, and how many would think that 4 hurricanes would affect one state? Weather is really unpredictable.


Or how a TS Fay made landfall in FL 4 times!
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Anyway I got to head out. Dont get me wrong I am not attacking folks in here. There are some outstanding meteorologist on this blog. I just see some things a little different at times.
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Big system headed into DFW. Looks like they'll get hit hard!
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Quoting Weather456:
I always wondered how the blog would be if it existed in 2004. By July 30, almost everyone would think the season was a dud. What are the chances that 8 tropical cyclones would form over the next month, and how many would think that 4 hurricanes would affect one state? Weather is really unpredictable.

At times it can be, maybe one day a month. I wrote TAFs for four years and everyone I worked with including myself stats showed over 95% accurate. We forecasted within 1/2 mile vis, 1K cloud heights, and present weather. It is only hard (totally in my opinion) when we over complicate what is right in front of us.
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Oh man they just upgraded to a flash flood warning:

NEWS RELEASE

Wednesday June 10, 2009 – 5:00 a.m

*** FLASH FLOOD WARNING NOW IN EFFECT FOR ALL PARISHES ***

The Meteorological Service has issued a Flash Flood Warning for low-lying and flood-prone areas of all parishes until 5:00 p.m. tomorrow.

A Flash Flood Warning means that flooding has been reported or will occur shortly. Motorists and pedestrians should not attempt to cross flooded roadways or other low-lying areas as strong currents are likely. Residents in low-lying areas should be on the alert for fast rising waters and be ready to move quickly to higher ground.

The persistent Trough across the western Caribbean continues to influence weather conditions across Jamaica. A Tropical Wave interacting with this Trough is expected to continue producing periods of showers and thunderstorms across most parishes today. Last night and this morning, light showers occurred across most parishes.

Due to the presence of the systems, an increase in showers and thunderstorms, which may be heavy at times, is expected across the island today, tonight and tomorrow. Flash flooding of low-lying and flood-prone areas is therefore expected.

Fishers and other marine interests are advised to exercise caution as gusty winds and rough seas may be encountered in areas of showers and thunderstorms north and south of the island.


The Meteorological Service will continue to monitor the situation.

rar
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I always wondered how the blog would be if it existed in 2004. By July 30, almost everyone would think the season was a dud. What are the chances that 8 tropical cyclones would form over the next month, and how many would think that 4 hurricanes would affect one state? Weather is really unpredictable.
Member Since: July 24, 2005 Posts: 407 Comments: 19076
Quoting antonio28:


Where??

In the Gulf affecting the Gulf States. And no signs of anythign coming off of Africa yet and if it does it will still take awhile to get all the way over here.

I do agree the ITCZ is jogging northward so in a another 12-15 days stuff could start to pop.
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At first glance it appears 91E has a surface circulation at 122W and a mid-level one with possible low-level turning at 117W. The mid-level circulation makes it look impressive but I don't think it's as organized as it looks. Link
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Quoting Weather456:


I hope it was more beneficial than problematic.

well we actually need the rain
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LONG TERM...A RIDGE WILL REMAIN OVER SOUTHEAST TEXAS. CONTINUED
HOT TEMPERATURES WILL WITH VERY LOW RAIN CHANCES. HUMIDITY WILL
REMAIN ON THE HIGH SIDE SO AFTERNOON HEAT INDEX VALUES WILL BE
APPROACHING DANGEROUS LEVELS. THE 12Z ECMWF SHIFTS THE UPPER RIDGE
TO THE EAST BY NEXT WEEKEND ALLOWING ANY DISTURBANCES IN THE GULF
TO PUSH IN TO TEXAS. THE GFS KEEPS THE RIDGE IN PLACE. AT THIS
TIME...FEEL THE GFS IS ON THE RIGHT TRACK AND WILL LEAN TOWARD THE
STRONG RIDGE REMAINING IN PLACE.

Thanks Ike. We get ours from Lake Charles. Doesn't say if they are favoring one model just this...

AREA FORECAST DISCUSSION
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LAKE CHARLES LA
253 PM CDT WED JUN 10 2009

.DISCUSSION...SURFACE ANALYSIS SHOWING HIGH PRESSURE CENTERED OVER
THE CENTRAL GULF. LOW PRESSURE AND AN ACCOMPANYING FRONT EXTENDS
FROM THE NORTHEAST CONUS...THROUGH THE OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI
VALLEYS...THEN ARCING SOUTHWEST INTO NORTHWEST TEXAS. ORIENTATION
OF PRESSURE SYSTEMS PROVIDING A MOIST LOW LEVEL SOUTHERLY FLOW.
ALOFT...HIGH PRESSURE REMAINS CENTERED OVER OLD MEXICO...RIDGING
NORTHEAST THROUGH THE LOWER AND MID MISSISSIPPI VALLEYS.

OVERALL SYNOPTIC PATTERN TO REMAIN SIMILAR THROUGHOUT THE UPCOMING
FORECAST PACKAGE. THUS LOW LEVEL FLOW TO REMAIN MOIST AND
SOUTHERLY...MID AND UPPER LEVELS TO REMAIN DRY AND CAPPED INHIBITING
ANY CONVECTIVE DEVELOPMENT. SOME BREAKDOWN OF NORTHERN PERIPHERY
OF RIDGE NOTED FOR THURSDAY AND FRIDAY AS MODELS DEPICTING A FEW
SHORTWAVES ADVANCING THROUGH HIGH. ENERGY REMAINS SUFFICIENTLY NORTH
WITH FEATURES TO MAINTAIN DRY PATTERN. RIDGE REAMPLIFIES OVER THE
WEEKEND AS IT GRADUALLY MIGRATES EAST. THUS HOT HUMID DAYS...WARM
MUGGY NIGHTS AND LITTLE CHANCE OF RAIN TO CONTINUE.


Lol. I like HOUS/GALV better. :)
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Quoting MeterologistDewon9:


Well hopefully this time tomorrow we will have TD-02 in the Carribbean


No.
Member Since: August 2, 2007 Posts: 19 Comments: 19234

Credit: NASA



NASA LRO Story



Last summer, over one million people submitted their names to be included on a microchip to be blasted off to the moon via NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. In preparation for LRO's launch on June 16th, engineers are shown here with the microchip encased in a radiation hardened container and attached to the back of the propulsion module access panel.


Image: Technicians completed connections between the LRO and LCROSS spacecraft and the Atlas V rocket at Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis


LRO/LCROSS Launch Moves Forward

The launch and mission teams for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Spacecraft missions met on Wednesday in Florida for the Flight Readiness Review, or FRR.

The teams announced that there are no major issues or concerns to hamper launch at this time.

Final spacecraft closeouts are underway at the launch pad and countdown dress rehearsal activities are planned for all day Thursday.

A Launch Readiness Review, or LRR, is scheduled for Monday at 9 a.m. EDT. A prelaunch news conference will be held after the LRR and is planned for 1 p.m. EDT. The briefing will be broadcast live from the news center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center on NASA TV.

Liftoff currently is scheduled for June 17 at 3:51 p.m. EDT. There are two more launch opportunities that day at 4:01 p.m. and 4:11 p.m.

Mission Overview
Both probes will fly to the moon atop the same Atlas V rocket, although they will use vastly different methods to study the lunar environment. The LRO will go into orbit around the moon, turning its suite of instruments towards the moon for thorough studies. The spacecraft also will be looking for potential landing sites for astronauts. The LCROSS, on the other hand, will guide an empty upper stage on a collision course with a permanently shaded crater in an effort to kick up evidence of water at the moon's poles. LCROSS itself will also impact the lunar surface during its course of study.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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