Storm surge reduction by wetlands

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 10:31 AM GMT on May 08, 2009

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It has long been argued that coastal wetlands provide critical protection against incoming hurricane storm surges, and that restoration of lost wetlands should be a key component of any strategy to protect vulnerable regions such as New Orleans. But exactly how much protection do wetlands afford? This has been a contentious issue, and there is no one number that works to define the value of wetlands in protecting against storm surge. In fact, in some cases, wetlands do not reduce the storm surge at all.

The traditional rule of thumb: each 2.7 miles of marsh knocks down the storm surge by 1 foot
Historically, many people have used the rule of thumb that each 2.7 miles of marsh knocks down the storm surge by 1 foot (1 meter reduction per 14.5 km of marsh). This estimate is based on a US Army Corps of Engineers report from 1963 (USACE, 1963), which examined the inland penetration of the storm surge from seven storms in southern Louisiana between 1909 and 1957. However, the data from this study varied by about a factor of three--attenuation rates as high as 1 foot per 1.3 miles of marsh were seen in one storm, and as low as 1 foot per 3.8 miles of marsh in another.

Thus, the simple rule of thumb of a 1 foot storm surge reduction per 2.7 miles of marsh is not a very good one to use in most situations. The inland penetration of the storm surge is an extremely complicated function of storm track, speed, duration, size, and associated waves; the regional topography, geometry of the shore, presence of barrier islands, and slope of the ocean bottom; plus the type and thickness of vegetation, and presence or absence of levees. Wetlands will always act to slow down the inland penetration of a storm surge, so the surge will not be able to advance very far inland before the winds die down if a region is exposed to strong winds for a short period of time. One example of this was in western Louisiana during Hurricane Rita of 2005. As the hurricane approached western Louisiana at 11 - 14 mph, the coast was initially subjected to offshore winds that blew water away from land. In the final few hours before landfall, the counter-clockwise circulation of air around the hurricane brought on-shore winds and a storm surge of up to 15 feet to the western Louisiana coast. However, this portion of the coast was only subject to on-shore winds for a few hours, and the surge was reduced by the wetlands by 1 foot per 2.1 - 3.6 miles of inland penetration, according to an ADCIRC storm surge model simulation by Resio and Westerink (2008).

Wetlands don't always decrease the storm surge
However, the situation is very different for slow moving storms, or for portions of the coast subjected to strong winds for many hours. If a marshland is subject to strong winds for long enough, the wetlands will completely flood, and there will be no reduction of storm surge at all--and an increase in storm surge is even possible, according to the mathematical equations governing the surge (Resio and Westerink, 2008). This has occurred in Louisiana during a number of storms--Hurricanes Rita, Katrina, Gustav, Ike, and Hurricane Betsy of 1965, along the eastern side of the protruding delta of the Mississippi River (Figure 1). Resio and Westerlink (2008) found that during Hurricane Rita of 2005, strong winds blew along the east side of the Mississippi for almost a full day, completely flooding the 25 miles of wetlands fronting the Mississippi River levee at English Turn. In fact, the model results show that the surge probably increased in height, by 1 foot per 8.7 miles of inland penetration in the Hurricane Rita simulation, since the day-long period of strong winds allowed the surge to pile up against the levee. Thus, while the wetlands were able to slow down the speed with which the surge reached the levee, the wetlands had no impact on the surge height in that location. A similar effect was seen during Hurricane Carla in 1961, a ferocious Category 4 hurricane that brought the highest storm surge ever observed to the Texas coast--a massive 22.7 feet at Port Lavaca. Carla moved so slowly--just 8 mph--that the surge had plenty of time to inundate marshes, and along one inland bluff fronted by wetlands, the surge was higher than at the coast.


Figure 1. For portions of the coast subjected to strong winds for a long period of time, wetlands do little to prevent high storm surges. This NOAA SLOSH model simulation of Category 3 Hurricane Betsy as it tracked west of New Orleans shows the highest storm surge occurred (pink colors) in a region where the surge had passed over 25 miles of wetlands. The Mississippi River levee at English Turn dammed up the storm surge.

In a 2008 conference presentation, Dr. Pat Fitzpatick used a SLOSH storm surge model to show that wetlands reduced the inland penetration of Katrina's storm surge near the hurricane's inital landfall over the Mississippi River "bird's foot" by 1 foot per 1.5 miles of wetlands traversed. The effect varied with the depth of the surge--an eight foot high surge was knocked down about 13% by wetlands, while a one foot high surge was reduced 59%. However, he found that where people lived along the river's levees (Venice), the surge piled up, and the marshes did not decrease the surge at all.

How much will future wetland loss increase storm surge?
Over the next century along the Gulf Coast, sea levels will continue to rise, coastal land will continue to subside, and human impacts due to shipping and the oil and gas industry will continue to cause erosion that will reduce wetland acreage. According to Harold Wanless of the University of Miami, global sea level is presently rising at 3 mm per year, and the land along the Louisiana Mississippi River delta is subsiding at 4-11 mm per year. Relative sea level is, thus, presently rising at 70-140 cm (2.3 - 4.6 feet) per century. Global warming may increase this sea relative sea level rise even further. Wetlands are being lost at an average rate of more than 23 square miles (60 square km) per year, with higher pulses during hurricanes. Water is about one meter deep across recently lost marshes and up to two meters deep in earlier lost marshes. This is of concern not only for the potential loss of hurricane storm surge protection, but because wetlands serve to increase fisheries production, filter pollutants out of water, and provide wave protection.

Wamsley et al. (2007) performed a surge surge simulation using the ADCIRC model of what would happen if the wetlands were allowed to continue to deteriorate with no restorative efforts over the next 50 years. Their results suggested that 50 years from now, storm surge heights would increase by 10-15% along Louisiana coastal areas to the east of New Orleans. These results held for both a severe Katrina-like hurricane, and a more modest hurricane (both making landfall at about 12 mph). However, the authors cautioned that "the impact of landscape features on surge propagation is a relatively new application for surge models and research is required". To underscore this lack of understanding, a White Paper put together by 25 coastal scientists and engineers held in July, 2007 found that adequate storm surge data do not exist for calibrating and verifying the models used to predict the impact of wetlands (or other features) on storm surge. Wamsley et al. are working on a field program in southern Louisiana to reduce these uncertainties. They intend to measure water level and wave attenuation across a wetland between Lake Borgne and the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet channel, using four non-directional water level/ wave gauges, an anemometer, and a periodic characterization of the wetland, including elevation, plant type, plant density, and plant height. The data collected will be analyzed to determine the surge and wave attenuation based on the vegetation type, density, and height.

Some expert opinions: Do wetlands reduce storm surges?
At an October 2008 meeting of the Geological Society of America, Dr. Robert Young of Western Carolina University stated that while he agreed with proposed ambitious efforts to restore wetlands in Louisiana, the potential storm protection benefits were "unknowable, but are most likely to be minimal".

Dr. Stephen Baig, who retired in 2008 as the head of the National Hurricane Center's storm surge unit, commented to me: Marshes are functionally useless as storm surge dissipators--disregarding for the moment their acknowledged utility for ocean breeding stock and other necessary and/or desirable functions. Once a marsh has more than a few feet of water overlying it the frictional effect of the grass is erased. The mythical "2.7 feet of surge reduction per inland mile of marsh" is just that, a myth. Also, it's unfortunate that the sand islands that front the shoreline are called "barrier" islands. They are certainly not barriers to storm surge. They get over-topped or breached with regularity. They are functionally useless as surge protection.

Dr. Joannes Westerink, who was the originator of the ADCIRC storm surge model, had this to say: "I think it depends on geography, storm direction, speed and size. For storms that track to the west of the Mississippi River with their sustained easterly winds impacting the eastern side of the Louisiana Mississippi River region, the marshes are essentially irrelevant. For the east-west coastline in western LA, there does appear to be some attenuation of surge elevations for many storms.

Outspoken hurricane scientist Dr. Ivor van Heerden, who as I reported, will be removed from his position at the Louisiana State Hurricane Center in 2010, had this to say in his 2006 book, The Storm: Wetlands can protect us from storm surge. Along with barrier islands, they are the best, most natural, least expensive buffer available...Joe Suhayda has already published computer studies showing that the 9.3-foot surge at Cocodrie, LA during Hurricane Andrew in 1992 would have been a foot higher without the barrier islands. Joe has calculated that a completely healthy marsh system could cut the storm surge in New Orleans by half.


Figure 2. Hurricane Ike of 2008 pushed a massive storm surge far inland over Texas and Louisiana, as the brown areas along the coast in this NASA Terra satellite image show.

Summary
The take home message from all this is that the degree of protection wetlands provide from storm surges is extremely complicated and is largely unknown. A simple rule of thumb that "X" miles of marshland will knock down the surge by "Y" number of feet is not going to be valid for most situations. Storm surge models do have equations to estimate the attenuation of the storm surge by wetlands, but these equations have not been validated using real world data. Thus, any model estimates of storm surge reduction by wetlands must be considered suspect. Wetlands will slow down the progress of a storm surge, and so will be most effective for for weaker and faster-moving storms. But if the wind blows strongly enough for long enough, it doesn't matter how many miles of wetlands you have, the storm surge will come. Thus, efforts to restore wetlands for the primary purpose of reducing hurricane surge will be ineffective in many cases, particularly for large, slow-moving hurricanes.

References
Resio, D.T., and J.J. Westerink, 2008, "Modeling the physics of storm surges", Physics Today, September 2008, pp. 33-38.

Corps of Engineers, US Army Engineer District, New Orleans, Interim Survey Report, Morgan City, Louisiana and Vicinity, serial no. 63, US Army Engineer District, New Orleans, LA (November 1963).

Fitzpatrick, P., 2008, "The impact of Louisiana's levees and wetlands on Katrina's storm surge", 28th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, American Meteorological Society, May 2008.

Wamsley et al., 2007, "Influence of Wetland Degradation on Surge", Proc. 10th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting and Coastal Hazard Symposium.

Jeff Masters

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1269. wetlandresearch
10:18 PM GMT on December 09, 2009
Thanks for the article on storm surge and storm surge attenuation of wetlands, I stumbled across it this afternoon. I will incorporate some of the references for my wetlands site, and link back to this article. I have also seen an article or paper, not certain where, that stated that shipping channels cut through wetlands also reduced the wetlands ability to minimize storm surge by providing a path of least resistance.
1268. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
4:15 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
AOI E PAC WEST OF PAN
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 163 Comments: 52257
1267. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
4:07 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
good day all in for a lunch break
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 163 Comments: 52257
1266. IKE
2:46 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
My...my...some on edge this morning.

Ahhh...good coffee....

I'll make another pot if you want a cup?
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
1265. IKE
2:38 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


I wonder how many will be named Ike... or god forbid.. Ikette


LOL.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
1264. weathermanwannabe
2:28 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
When using Dr. Masters' blog, please refrain from posting material not relevant to the discussion of tropical weather, or the topic of the blog entry itself. Please do not engage in personal attacks or bickering.

Good Morning All and Ditto........
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 8278
1263. Orcasystems
1:52 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting Tazmanian:
guys cant we all get a long ???


you dont want to be doing this when we get in too a active period of hurricane season do you ???


so whats work things out and get a long


I still haven't even figured out what I did? I am just sitting here with a morning coffee.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26493
1262. Patrap
1:51 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
ReliefWEB

NDCC update situation report re effects of Typhoon "Emong" as of 6:00am 12 May 2009


Source: Government of the Philippines

Date: 12 May 2009

I. Weather Update

At 2 AM today, 12 May 2009, the Low Pressure Area (LPA) was estimated at 680 km northeast of extreme northern Luzon (23.4 °North, 127.1 °East). Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is also affecting Visayas and Mindanao.

II. Effects

A. Affected Population

1. The total of areas and population affected is the same as in previous report: 34,626 families / 161,020 persons, 406 barangays, 52 municipalities, 6 cities, 11 provinces and 4 regions.

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 414 Comments: 125587
1261. Tazmanian
1:51 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
guys cant we all get a long ???


you dont want to be doing this when we get in too a active period of hurricane season do you ???


so whats work things out and get a long
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5089 Comments: 114053
1260. Patrap
1:46 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Hurricane forecasters perplexed over intensity predictions

Sarasota Herald-Tribune - ‎13 hours ago‎
By Kate Spinner

Over the past 15 years, errors made in predicting the path of hurricanes have dropped by about half, but storm intensity prediction is still where it was in the early 1990s.



Scientists are working on a number of projects to improve intensity forecasts, especially predictions for storms that increase in strength rapidly, such as Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma during the busy 2005 season.



A storm generally strengthens when wind shear is low and sea surface temperatures are high, but the hurricane track, sea spray, waves, the structure of the storm's eye and gravity pull from mountains also affect a storm's ability to strengthen. Experts working on improving intensity forcasts are incorporating more of those ocean dynamics into their prediction models, Richard Pasch, senior hurricane specialist with the National Hurricane Center, told attendees of a basic meteorology course at the Governor's Hurricane Conference in Fort Lauderdale today.



Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 414 Comments: 125587
1259. TampaSpin
1:45 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting CaneWarning:
Wow - its starting early today.


Sorry your correct. Have a good day everyone. I'm out of here as this is why i don't log on to much anymore.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 177 Comments: 20430
1258. TampaSpin
1:42 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Orca keep Challenging me on every post. I'm sure many are seeing what is happening.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 177 Comments: 20430
1257. CaneWarning
1:40 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Wow - its starting early today.
Member Since: April 26, 2009 Posts: 3 Comments: 3667
1256. TampaSpin
1:36 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


Umm isn't that what he said.. west of Panama and Epac?


WOW! What the hell is up with you! I simply reinforced what he said, putting No Doubt.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 177 Comments: 20430
1255. Orcasystems
1:33 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting TampaSpin:


If anything was to develop it would be on the Pacific side.


Umm isn't that what he said.. west of Panama and Epac?
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26493
1254. Squid28
1:33 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


I wonder how many will be named Ike... or god forbid.. Ikette


Man could I get going on a roll for this one, I have already had three or four variants pop up in my head since reading the report......
Member Since: May 23, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 343
1253. TampaSpin
1:29 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting stoormfury:
it appears that a low pressure area is trying to form to the west of panama.wind shear is around 15 knots and the SST is rather conducive.the centre of what appears to be a weak circulation is overland. i will continue tomonitor this area as the epac season starts friday


If anything was to develop it would be on the Pacific side.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 177 Comments: 20430
1252. Skyepony (Mod)
1:28 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
leftovers~ Notice the 3 fires around 520 & 50 the lightning started lastnight? Lake Harney area is still on fire too. It's already hot & humid at night. Came on quicker this year than the last few.
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 156 Comments: 36084
1251. Orcasystems
1:28 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Blog Refresh
Mirror Site

Daily Area of Interest
Click to enlarge
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26493
1250. Orcasystems
1:28 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting IKE:


I can handle it.

I guess with no electricity, folks made their own electricity.


I wonder how many will be named Ike... or god forbid.. Ikette
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26493
1249. IKE
1:22 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting Squid28:
Apparently the last time Ike jr. came to town not only did he trash the place at the party but he "knocked up" a lot of the girls at the party as well. Man has he ever done a real smear campaign on Ike sr, I just hope nobody starts filing paternity suits......

Who's your daddy?


I can handle it.

I guess with no electricity, folks made their own electricity.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
1248. Squid28
1:11 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Apparently the last time Ike jr. came to town not only did he trash the place at the party but he "knocked up" a lot of the girls at the party as well. Man has he ever done a real smear campaign on Ike sr, I just hope nobody starts filing paternity suits......

Who's your daddy?
Member Since: May 23, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 343
1247. stoormfury
1:07 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
it appears that a low pressure area is trying to form to the west of panama.wind shear is around 15 knots and the SST is rather conducive.the centre of what appears to be a weak circulation is overland. i will continue tomonitor this area as the epac season starts friday
Member Since: August 22, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 2552
1246. RTLSNK
12:28 PM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting presslord:
1238....

you're a poet...and don't know it...and your feet show it...

..they're Longfellows...


Thank you, thank you, thank you very much.

Thats loooooooongfelloooooooos.

Elvis has left the building.
Member Since: September 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 19514
1245. presslord
11:54 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
1238....

you're a poet...and don't know it...and your feet show it...

..they're Longfellows...
Member Since: August 13, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 10458
1243. beell
11:19 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Moderate Risk Severe-MO, IL. Tomorrow.

SPC Day 2 Outlook
Member Since: September 11, 2007 Posts: 137 Comments: 15306
1239. Cavin Rawlins
10:45 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Morning,

Tropical Update
Member Since: July 24, 2005 Posts: 407 Comments: 19076
1238. RTLSNK
10:31 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
61*F this morning in Macon, Georgia
81% humidity, overcast, but no yellows or reds
I like light green radar, light green is quiet
The rain whispers to the earth when its green
Yellows tend to rip the petals from the roses
Reds pound the little seedlings into the ground
Light green is a nice way to start the day.
Member Since: September 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 19514
1237. IKE
8:44 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting Beachfoxx:
Night Ike......
LOL
Nice tune...


Thanks....
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
1236. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
4:53 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 163 Comments: 52257
1235. flsky
4:28 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
GREAT storm this afternoon and tonight in Daytona Beach Shores. Been waiting for lightning, thunder and rain for a loooong time! Hope it continues into a VERY wet summer!
Member Since: October 24, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 1723
1234. Skyepony (Mod)
4:09 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
I'm getting steady light rain from that cloud over ECFL. Occational mostly cloud to cloud lightning. Had a bright flash, I hope was maybe a reflection off a neighbor's car or something. Kinda looked like ball lightning but the sound came from above. Ball lightning makes sound right? Spooked me to quit watering.
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 156 Comments: 36084
1233. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
3:59 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 163 Comments: 52257
1232. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
3:54 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 163 Comments: 52257
1231. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
3:53 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 163 Comments: 52257
1230. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
3:49 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 163 Comments: 52257
1229. Beachfoxx
3:45 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Night Ike......
LOL
Nice tune...
Quoting IKE:
Goodnight cyberspace. There's a bed waiting on me.

Call out the instigators, because there's something in the air...classic Thunderclap Newman from 1969.
Member Since: July 10, 2005 Posts: 157 Comments: 29378
1228. Beachfoxx
3:44 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Wow! I agree with what you say... can't believe someone called you ignorant, blah, blah, blah... But to be honest, I have little respect for the NWFDN....... slanted views???
Quoting IKE:


I questioned why they approached the suspect. I would have ordered his tail on the ground from a distance.

They already knew he wouldn't listen to LEO from a prior domestic violence case where he wouldn't open the door at his apartment.

LEO approached him because they didn't see a weapon...it was concealed!

I thought more OCSO should have gone on the call.

I posted my opinions on the NWFDN website and got told to shutup...I was ignorant, etc.

I'm waiting for the FDLE report to be released giving their opinions.

Member Since: July 10, 2005 Posts: 157 Comments: 29378
1227. IKE
3:37 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Goodnight cyberspace. There's a bed waiting on me.

Call out the instigators, because there's something in the air...classic Thunderclap Newman from 1969.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
1226. IKE
3:28 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting Beachfoxx:
Unbelievable really.
Its been questioned as to why they did not wait before "trying to apprehend suspect" since he had just left a shooting range, they knew he was most likely armed. Sadly, he was armed and ready to kill & get killed.


I questioned why they approached the suspect. I would have ordered his tail on the ground from a distance.

They already knew he wouldn't listen to LEO from a prior domestic violence case where he wouldn't open the door at his apartment.

LEO approached him because they didn't see a weapon...it was concealed!

I thought more OCSO should have gone on the call.

I posted my opinions on the NWFDN website and got told to shutup...I was ignorant, etc.

I'm waiting for the FDLE report to be released giving their opinions.

Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
1225. Ossqss
3:23 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting moonlightcowboy:

I think you're gaining on it! :)


That cold pizza cannot escape me :-}
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8183
1224. Beachfoxx
3:23 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Unbelievable really.
Its been questioned as to why they did not wait before "trying to apprehend suspect" since he had just left a shooting range, they knew he was most likely armed. Sadly, he was armed and ready to kill & get killed.
Quoting IKE:


Over a tube of clearasil.

Okaloosa county has taken a big hit in the last year.
Member Since: July 10, 2005 Posts: 157 Comments: 29378
1223. moonlightcowboy
3:21 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting Ossqss:


Population has to come in play sooner or later. There is not an infinite amout of resource available, be it food or fuel. We will inevitably reach the point of correction.

IMHO

I think you're gaining on it! :)
Member Since: July 9, 2006 Posts: 184 Comments: 29594
1222. Ossqss
3:21 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting moonlightcowboy:

Agreed.


I will 3rd that as I exit -- Learn, investigate, and better yourself as part there of. That's how we all make progress.

Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8183
1221. IKE
3:19 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting Beachfoxx:
That was a terrible day... Can you believe Okaloosa has lost 3 deputies in one year?? Its so sad for the families. All of them were young men with families. Oh, that must be a horrible picture to carry around in your mind! Seeing that!


Over a tube of clearasil.

Okaloosa county has taken a big hit in the last year.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
1220. moonlightcowboy
3:19 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Quoting TampaMishy:
Well I'm off like a prom dress...See you all later...Nite

lmao
Member Since: July 9, 2006 Posts: 184 Comments: 29594
1219. TampaMishy
3:18 AM GMT on May 12, 2009
Well I'm off like a prom dress...See you all later...Nite
Member Since: July 30, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1474

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About JeffMasters

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.