Influenza and the weather

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:14 PM GMT on May 04, 2009

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It is well known that influenza hits hardest in winter--November to March in the Northern Hemisphere, and May to September in the Southern Hemisphere. In fact, the name influenza comes from the Italian word influenza, meaning "influence"--referring to the "influence of the season" (winter) in causing the illness. In the tropics, where there is little change in seasons, influenza occurs year-round (though increased incidence has been noted in rainy seasons--Viboud et al., 2006). Do the cold temperatures and lower humidities of winter cause increased transmission of the flu virus? If so, why is the current H1N1 swine flu outbreak doing so well, now that it is May, traditionally the end of flu season in the Northern Hemisphere? Or could it be that indoor crowding, lack of sunlight lowering vitamin D levels, and a more depressed immune system in winter are largely responsible, as some researchers have suggested?

Flu infections increase under cold or dry conditions
To test these hypotheses, researchers at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York did a study in 2007 that looked at flu transmission among guinea pigs, which are highly susceptible to human influenza and easily transmit the virus to other guinea pigs (Lowen et al., 2007). The animals were placed in adjacent cages, so that infections could occur by airborne transmission, but not by direct contact (guinea pig lovers will be happy to know that the influenza virus-infected guinea pigs did not display detectable symptoms of disease--weight loss, fever, sneezing, and coughing--during the experiments). By carefully controlling temperature and humidity, the scientists were able to study the effects of each. They found that the animals shed much more of the virus--and over a longer period of time--at cold temperatures, which led to increased infection rates. The animals' immune system showed no signs of stress from the cold weather, arguing against the idea that cold conditions lead to increased infections by lowering the immune system. Lower humidities were also found to increase flu transmission rate, though the variation of infection rate with humidity was more complicated. The scientists built a model (Figure 1) to fit the data, and proposed that lower humidity increased infection rates through two mechanisms:

1) The stability of influenza virons in the suspended aerosol particles infected creatures cough out is dependent upon the humidity. Viruses are most stable at low RH (20%-40%), least stable at intermediate RH (50%), and stable again at high RH (60%-80%) (Schaffer et al., 1976). Thus, the virus has better staying power at the low moisture levels typical of winter.

2) At high RH (80%), exhaled respiratory droplets grow quite large as water vapor condenses around them, and these drops quickly settle to the ground under the force of gravity. Thus, even though the virus is stable at high humidities, it settles out of the atmosphere quickly, and cannot contribute to influenza virus spread.


Figure 1. A model of influenza transmission rates at 68°F (20°C) (dashed line) and 41°F (5°C) (solid line), as a function of relative humidity. Transmission efficiency is highest at low relative humidity, when influenza virions in an aerosol are relatively stable, and exhaled respiratory droplets stay small and don't settle out under the force of gravity. Transmission is diminished at intermediate humidity when virus particles are relatively unstable, but improves in parallel with influenza virus stability at higher humidities. At high humidity, evaporation from exhaled particles is limited, respiratory droplets settle out of the air, and transmission is blocked. At cold temperatures (solid line), transmission is more efficient than at warm temperatures (dashed line), but is reduced to a rate of 50% at higher humidities. Image credit: Lowen, A.C., S. Mubareka, J. Steel, and P. Palese, 2007, "Influenza Virus Transmission Is Dependent on Relative Humidity and Temperature", PLos Pathogons, October 2007.

The researchers found no guinea pig infections at 86°F (30°C), which implies that in tropical climates, people may transmit the virus by direct contact rather than by coughing and sneezing. A second study Lowen et al., 2009) confirmed this idea--at least among guinea pigs. The authors concluded, "To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that cold temperatures and low relative humidity are favorable to the spread of influenza virus. Although other factors likely contribute to the periodicity of influenza epidemics, it is clear that air temperature and RH could play an important role. Influenza virus transmission indoors could potentially be curtailed by simply maintaining room air at warm temperatures (>20 °C) and either intermediate (50%) or high (80%) RHs".

Climate change and influenza
The results of this study imply that global warming may significantly reduce influenza world-wide, since a warmer climate will also be more humid. Typically, there are between three and five million cases of severe flu and up to 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. In the United States alone, an average of 41,400 deaths and 1.68 million hospitalizations are attributed to influenza each year. A warmer world should reduce these numbers, if the current research is correct. However, these gains must be balanced against the possibility that malaria will become more widespread in a warmer world, since malaria kills about one million people per year.


Figure 2. Combined flu and pneumonia deaths in the United Kingdom during the great 1918 flu pandemic showed that the flu had three distinct peaks: one in June - July (a relatively mild form of the disease), followed by an extremely deadly outbreak in October, then another during the winter of 1918 - 1919. The 1918 flu pandemic infected 1/3 of the world's population, killing 50 - 100 million people. Strangely, the October peak occurred almost world-wide, with Bombay, India and Boston, Massachusetts peaking the same week. Image credit: Jordan, E., "Epidemic influenza: a survey", Chicago: American Medical Association, 1927.

Flu pandemics show little seasonality
The current Mexican H1N1 swine flu outbreak is seemingly unusual, since it is hitting at the end of the traditional flu season, in April - May. However, when a new flu strain develops that humans have no immunity to, the new strain is less constrained by seasonality. According to Dr. Jeffery Taubenberger, the virologist who helped isolate the genetic code of the virus responsible for the great 1918 flu pandemic, "Historical records since the 16th century suggest that new influenza pandemics may appear at any time of year, not necessarily in the familiar annual winter patterns of inter-pandemic years, presumably because newly shifted influenza viruses behave differently when they find a universal or highly susceptible human population." Indeed, the 1918 flu pandemic reached its peak in September - October (Figure 2), and the most recent flu pandemic, the 1968 Hong Kong flu, began in July. It wouldn't surprise me if the current flu outbreak dies down in the Northern Hemisphere over the summer months, as the combined effects of high temperatures, higher humidities, less indoor crowding, and increased sunlight interfere with its spread. However, we need to be ready for the virus to reappear in the Fall--potentially in a mutated, more virulent form--such as occurred during the 1918 flu pandemic.

References
Lowen, A.C., S. Mubareka, J. Steel, and P. Palese, 2007, "Influenza Virus Transmission Is Dependent on Relative Humidity and Temperature", PLos Pathogons, October 2007.

Lowen, A.C., S. Mubareka, J. Steel, and P. Palese, 2009, "High Temperature (30°C) Blocks Aerosol but Not Contact Transmission of Influenza Virus", Journal of Virology, June 2008, p. 5650-5652, Vol. 82, No. 11 0022-538X/08/$08.00+0 doi:10.1128/JVI.00325-08

Schaffer, F.L., M.E. Soergel, and D.C. Straube, 1976, "Survival of airborne influenza virus: effects of propagating host, relative humidity, and composition of spray fluids", Arch Virol 51: 263-273.

Viboud, C, W.J. Alonso, and L. Simonsen, 2006, "Influenza in tropical regions", PLoS Med 3: e89 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030089.

Vitamin D and influenza links:
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/51913.ph p
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/0808 11195629.htm
http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/science/research/v itamin-d-and-influenza.shtml

Jeff Masters

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hello everyone been awhile since i have been on here...what is everyones thoughts on the upcoming season
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Sheriffs are elected officials.
Dragging several thousands voters out by the head of their hair ain't gonna happen.
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783. Good points and good ideas. This is whats needed.
Member Since: August 15, 2008 Posts: 10 Comments: 3665
Quoting theshepherd:
Me next, please!
I believe in God also.

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790. N3EG
Has the E. Pacific hurricane season started yet?

I see today that the flow has changed from onshore to offshore there.
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785. I believe they did just that in Galveston during Ike.
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Quoting DDR:

Is this some religion blog?I don't think so,pfff your gone.
Me next, please!
I believe in God also.
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777 - I am not a good translater, this is all I could find in the Urban dictionary. Pfff Could mean all of them in this case eh?

1. Pfff
Used to dismiss comments that are usually true, especially when the speaker can not think of a witty retort.

2. Pfff
An expression of annoyance or disappointment.

3. Pfff
A sound one makes when suffering a loss, when regarding things as lowly, or generally when not feeling so brilliant.

4. Pfff
A word used to simulate the sound of inhaling on a reefer/joint.

Link
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8188
762. Patrap 6:13 PM GMT on May 06, 2009
Wave, smave,it dosent matter,since Development dosent occur that far east in May,nor June.

Focus closer in,like the Western Caribbean,the GOM proper or the BOC.


There isn't rule that dictates we should look only at developing systems. tropical weather encompasses things other than tropical cylone, example tropical waves and some us watch these items for research purposes not just to look at something that will develop into a cat 5 and hit Whoppo State.

Member Since: July 24, 2005 Posts: 407 Comments: 19076
Quoting homelesswanderer:
I admit this brings up some difficult questions. I don't think "forcing" people to evacuate is even possible. For one thing the local authorities are already completely stretched to the limit at times like these.
As for evacuating the elderly, I would hope if you know an elderly person who is alone that you would do everything possible to help them at such a time.But that doesnt mean you can make them evacuate any more than you can anyone else.
Maybe the best we can all do is to educate everyone. Other than ignoring the mistakes of the past maybe we can learn from them.
I beleive maybe not a force evac but a notification that in a life and death situation if you choose to stay behind your on your own no one is coming to render assistance until at the earilest once surge recedes enough to survey damage areas do assessments and body counts but only if in a manatory evac zone prone to extensive damage from surge and wind it sounds like a cold heartless approach but in the end its proable that its the best approach
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56141
Can't believe its this hot.
Lakeland, Florida (PWS)
Updated: 3:57 PM EDT on May 06, 2009

94.1 °F
Clear
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 24580
Hi Everyone!

Another thing to consider, when talking about evacuating the elderly is, many of them have no where to go. The shelters are often very uncomfortable and hard on old folks. And hotels are too costly for those on a small fixed income. Many have no family near by. However, it is very important that they evacuate!

I wish that those in safe homes, and safe zones, would take their name and contact number to a senior mobile home park, or such as that, if they are willing to offer a spare room in their home to a senior citizen, during a storm. Maybe the information could be left with the office manager.

I don't know if this would help....BUT it's just a thought.

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I admit this brings up some difficult questions. I don't think "forcing" people to evacuate is even possible. For one thing the local authorities are already completely stretched to the limit at times like these.
As for evacuating the elderly, I would hope if you know an elderly person who is alone that you would do everything possible to help them at such a time.But that doesnt mean you can make them evacuate any more than you can anyone else.
Maybe the best we can all do is to educate everyone. Other than ignoring the mistakes of the past maybe we can learn from them.
Member Since: August 15, 2008 Posts: 10 Comments: 3665
Seems their gone and Im still here.

LOL


Even Trinidad has religion,..

Census data from 1990 states that 29.4% of the population was Roman Catholic, 23.8% Hindu, 10.9% Anglican, 5.8% Muslim, 3.4% Presbyterianism and 26.7% other.

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129904
Quoting DDR:

Is this some religion blog?I don't think so,pfff your gone.

?
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779. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Philippines Atmospherical Geophysical Astronomical Services and Administration

The Tropical Storm west of Luzon has entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility and was named "EMONG".

Tropical Cyclone Bulletin #1
==================================
At 11:00 PM PhST, Tropical Storm Emong (Chan-hom) located at 14.7°N 115.3°E or 465 kms west-southwest of Iba, Zambales has 10 minute sustained winds of 110 km/h (55 knots) near the center with gustiness up to 140 km/h (75 knots). The storm is reported as moving northeast at 7 knots.

Warning Signals (30-60 kph winds)
==============================

Luzon Region
-----------
1.Zambales
2.Tarlac
3.Pangasinan
4.La Union
5.Benguet
6.Ilocos Sur
7.Ilocos Norte
8.Abra

Residents living in low lying and mountainous areas under signal # 1 are alerted against flashfloods and landslides.

The rest of Central Luzon, Southern Luzon including Metro Manila will experience occasional rains beginning tonight.

The public and the disaster coordinating councils concerned are advised to take appropriate actions and watch for the next bulletin to be issued at 5 AM tomorrow.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 52 Comments: 47083
Wow..Quoted and Ignored in the same post..LOL


Classic.

Glad I made his /her day.

LOL

Nice Place,,..never been.

I'm from island Trinidad,the most southern island of the windwards,in the caribbean,situated @ 11n,61w.During the hurricane/rainy season ill keep you updated as systems pass through the area

Seems I touched a International nerve.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129904
777. DDR
Quoting Patrap:
Were all Americans First, we all have State Pride,it's a given and a good thing.

But Calamity Knows no Borders,..

What affects one,affects us all.

Were all Part of God's Body.

Take care of one another,even here.
One day,you may find yourself needing each other.

Is this some religion blog?I don't think so,pfff your gone.
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Quoting Bubu77:
Hello

Résident en Martinique j'ai connue Dean en aout 2007 et les très fortes pluie de hier dont certains d'entre vous on parlé

C'étais vraiment impressionnant ce qu'ils tombait avec l'intensité de la pluie
La commune du Robert à reçut 310 mm de pluie sois 31 cm d'eau en l'espace de quelque heures

C'étais une petite bande nuageuse très petite mais hypert active selon Météo France qui ne se déplaçais pas et à stagné sur l'ile durant 10 heures
Cette bande à uniquement concerné la Martinique

2 personnes sont mortes dont 1 noyé dans sa voiture et l'autre dans sa maison

Coulé de boue, glissement de terrains, voitures emporté, maison détruites les dégâts sont impressionnants


Dégats

On craint de nouvelles inondations car les sols sont totalement saturés !



Translated,French to English,"Babelfish"

Hello Resident in Martinique j' knew Dean August 2007 and the very strong rain of yesterday of which some d' between you one spoken C' stays really impressive this qu' they fell with l' intensity of the rain The commune of the Robert with accepted 310 mm of rain would be 31 cm d' water in l' space few hours C' stays a small very small band cloudy but hypert active according to Météo France which did not move and with stagnated on l' island during 10 hours This band in only concerned Martinique 2 people died including 1 drowned in its car and l' other in its house Run mud, landslide, cars carried, house destroyed the damage is impressive Damage New floods are feared because the grounds are completely saturated
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129904
Hello

Résident en Martinique j'ai connue Dean en aout 2007 et les très fortes pluie de hier dont certains d'entre vous on parlé

C'étais vraiment impressionnant ce qu'ils tombait avec l'intensité de la pluie
La commune du Robert à reçut 310 mm de pluie sois 31 cm d'eau en l'espace de quelque heures

C'étais une petite bande nuageuse très petite mais hypert active selon Météo France qui ne se déplaçais pas et à stagné sur l'ile durant 10 heures
Cette bande à uniquement concerné la Martinique

2 personnes sont mortes dont 1 noyé dans sa voiture et l'autre dans sa maison

Coulé de boue, glissement de terrains, voitures emporté, maison détruites les dégâts sont impressionnants


Dégats

On craint de nouvelles inondations car les sols sont totalement saturés !
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting melwerle:
771. Patrap - last year when we were faced with possibly having to leave (I forget which one it was, i think hannah) my 80 year old mother was pretty adament that she was going to stay. I had to put my foot down though - told her to pack what she needed, important papers etc and be ready. Made me want to pull my hair out though.


I had my own 78 year old elder change her mind on evacuating...4 miles inland...5 feet above sea level...directly in the path of Katrina. Stayed home in Slidell.

After getting hauled out of a picture window into a boat, watching her fridge float down the street, and surviving for 5 days in some neighbors second floor, she listens now. Luckily, she didn't have to pay full price for that lesson.

Would she have ever changed her attitude that she had already seen the worst of the worst and lived through it just fine without what she experienced? Probably not.

Lots of previous experience with calamity ill-prepares most of our elderly to make coherent decisions when faced with something even slightly more calamitous than they have ever seen.

Do not get me wrong, I have a huge amount of respect for most any senior citizen. But they are not usually all that receptive when they were there for Betsy, Camille, Audrey, Alicia, etc. (pick a couple) and getting told that they need to evacuate for 'this one' (whatever is threatening now).
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
Those can be trying moments,I have been there and done the same. But you made the right choice,..I saw many,well.. that didnt in 05.

And their voices were muted forever.

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129904
771. Patrap - last year when we were faced with possibly having to leave (I forget which one it was, i think hannah) my 80 year old mother was pretty adament that she was going to stay. I had to put my foot down though - told her to pack what she needed, important papers etc and be ready. Made me want to pull my hair out though.
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Difficult Conversations: Evacuation of Older Persons
Research Report


May 2006

Difficult Conversations: Evacuation of Older Persons
Harry R. Moody, Ph.D.
AARP Office of Academic Affairs

When homebound elders are reluctant to leave home in the face of an impending hurricane, we are faced with ethical dilemmas. In this situation do we simply leave people alone or do we actively intervene to insure their protection? Competing arguments present themselves:

(1) “My Home Is My Castle.” There is a strong tradition in American culture that people are entitled to be left alone and make their own decisions. Older people living at home have a lifetime of experience making hard choices and deciding what risks to bear. Deciding whether or not to evacuate under the threat of a hurricane should be left to individuals who are the best judge of their own circumstances. We know that leaving the home in which one has lived for years can provoke “transfer trauma” and even cause death. The risks of leaving are always balanced by the risks of staying. In the end, quality of life counts more than mere survival and each person is the best judge of what quality of life may mean.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129904
769 - They did just that for Ike. Even scarier than "signing up," they went around with sharpies and if someone said they were staying, they would hand them the sharpie and say "write your ssn on your arm so we can identify the body."
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I think if a mandatory evacuation is issued and people do not leave that is their own problem. I'm not sure I believe in forced evacuations. They've put in a lot of programs around here to evacuate those that are medically unable to leave on their own or do not have transportation. So there really isn't any excuse. If they chose to stay, they should have to register with some agency so they know where to search for the body. Maybe that would scare them enough to leave. I do agree they should be charged if they later have to be rescued.
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768. auburn (Mod)
Quoting Ossqss:


It is real !

You may want to ensure you check the notify me everytime option in the initial install of the coupon software that is required. The privacy policy was an interesting read also. Cluck, Cluck :)


Yea its real...I dont post things till I check them out...hope you enjoy the food...
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LOL..never happen,not in Texas,not in Wyoming.


A pipe dream,not a reality in any sense.

Jeff Kelley, Orange County's emergency management coordinator, said in a phone interview he thinks the proposed legislation is unreasonable.

"It would be unenforceable. There's no way you could do it," he said of making people leave.

"I do think folks should leave when they're asked to," he added.

"I don't really know whether it (the bill) is a good idea or not," said Bridge City City Manager Jerry Jones in a phone interview. "I don't know if you have the right to go in (to a house) and take people out."

Hurricane Ike sent 12 to 14 feet of water into Bridge City, flooding nearly every building in town.

Jones said he estimates about 500 people out of the town's 8,600 were rescued. The rescues mainly were done by volunteers bringing boats or police and fire personnel who provided their own boats, he said. None of them would have asked for money to help someone, he said.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129904
Quoting homelesswanderer:
Proposed bill would allow 'force' in storm evacuation, bills for rescues
By MARGARET TOAL
May, 5, 2009

The Texas Senate two weeks ago passed Senate Bill 12, which would allow local officials to use "reasonable force" to get people out of harm's way. The bill also would allow public entities to charge people for rescuing them.

Link


Good for Texas! Good idea.
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Proposed bill would allow 'force' in storm evacuation, bills for rescues
By MARGARET TOAL
May, 5, 2009

The Texas Senate two weeks ago passed Senate Bill 12, which would allow local officials to use "reasonable force" to get people out of harm's way. The bill also would allow public entities to charge people for rescuing them.

Link
Member Since: August 15, 2008 Posts: 10 Comments: 3665
764. beell
Best set-up for tornados looks to be in NC again. Along an E-W boundary setting on top of the NC/VA border
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Quoting auburn:
Off topic...but Hey its free lunch...
Free Lunch for ya all...Thanks Oprah!!!


It is real !

You may want to ensure you check the notify me everytime option in the initial install of the coupon software that is required. The privacy policy was an interesting read also. Cluck, Cluck :)
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8188
Wave, smave,it dosent matter,since Development dosent occur that far east in May,nor June.

Focus closer in,like the Western Caribbean,the GOM proper or the BOC.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129904
761. JRRP
Quoting Weather456:
757. JRRP 2:05 PM AST on May 06, 2009

This early in the season, the TPC will not designate this unless the axis moves over water. That QuikSCAT pass is over the ocean, the wave axis is overland (758)

yh i saw that
thanks
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760. JRRP
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757. JRRP 2:05 PM AST on May 06, 2009

This early in the season, the TPC will not designate this unless the axis moves over water. That QuikSCAT pass is over the ocean, the wave axis is overland (758)
Member Since: July 24, 2005 Posts: 407 Comments: 19076
Additional evidence to sugguest a wave feature.

Member Since: July 24, 2005 Posts: 407 Comments: 19076
757. JRRP
THE ITCZ AXIS IS ALONG 7N7W 3N16W 2N25W CROSSING THE EQUATOR
NEAR 32W AND CONTINUING S OF THE EQUATOR ALONG 1S37W INTO NE
BRAZIL NEAR 1S47W. SCATTERED MODERATE/STRONG CONVECTION IS FROM
THE COAST OF SW AFRICA TO THE EQUATOR BETWEEN 2W-10W. SCATTERED
MODERATE WITH EMBEDDED CLUSTERS OF ISOLATED STRONG CONVECTION
COVERS THE AREA FROM THE EQUATOR TO 9N BETWEEN 10W-20W. CLUSTERS
OF SCATTERED MODERATE CONVECTION ARE ELSEWHERE FROM THE EQUATOR
TO 4N BETWEEN 23W-40W.


is not Tropical wave ??? omg
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756. JRRP
Link
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Tropical Update
Member Since: July 24, 2005 Posts: 407 Comments: 19076
754. beell
739.
741.
Those are morning soundings also-12Z.
Would you guys buy a clock please?
j/k-sincerely!
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Did someone say something? ;)
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752. auburn (Mod)
Off topic...but Hey its free lunch...
Free Lunch for ya all...Thanks Oprah!!!
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Am I on everyone's ignore list?
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enjoy your trip!!,stay safe..
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yes,I'm being sincere...most of us on here have more interests in common,then not......
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Hi guys! Just popping in again for a second. I've posted more pics of my travels this week. I will have more time to weather chat when I get home on Saturday or Sunday. I hope ya'll enjoy the pictures!
Member Since: September 3, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 1519
Quoting Patrap:
Were all Americans First, we all have State Pride,it's a given and a good thing.

But Calamity Knows no Borders,..

What affects one,affects us all.

Were all Part of God's Body.

Take care of one another,even here.
One day,you may find yourself needing each other.


Amen! I believe that PAT--

And Stillwaiting if you are saying that sincerely then I give you my respect. It takes a man to apologize for his mistakes. Rather wrong or right, you did the right thing.
Member Since: August 30, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1857
Were all Americans First, we all have State Pride,it's a given and a good thing.

But Calamity Knows no Borders,..

What affects one,affects us all.

Were all Part of God's Body.

Take care of one another,even here.
One day,you may find yourself needing each other.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129904
Quoting boyzNme:


I find your comment incredibly offensive. This is a weather blog and most of the time I ignore all the back and forth, the bickering and the one-upmanship; but this I cannot ignore. I am a Floridian, a South Floridian. I am from here, my children go to school here, this is our home and you are a waiter transplant at an Italian restaurant. Believe me, we locals grin and bear the rudeness, disrespect and sense of entitlement you transplants seem to think is due you. In reality, we wish you would go away. You talk about how you are so happy and it will be great when your northern partners take over from us "no common sense Flo-ridians". Well, if a weed in your yard could talk I am sure that is what he would say. Please don't be a weed. If you like where you were then go back. If you are going to stay with us here in Florida then learn some manners. By the way, we Flo-idians count down to the end of the northerner season just like us here on WU count down to the beginning of hurricane season. Thank you reading and I hope you will either be a Floridian or go home. Back to lurking.



I shouldn't have said that, it was ignorant,even if thats what I believe,it was out of line, sorry to everyone I've emotionaly hurt:(
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Quoting natrwalkn:
Finished all my exams yesterday, grades were all posted today. Graduating from UNC-Wilmington with a BA in Physical Geography and a 3.5 GPA. Commencement this Saturday. On to grad school to do some SERIOUS climatology research!!! WHOPEEEEE!!!!!!!


Absolute congrats to you!! Now is a good time to go to grad school. I waited 5 years before I started and it was too long. Grad school is the best part!!
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