Influenza and the weather

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:14 PM GMT on May 04, 2009

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It is well known that influenza hits hardest in winter--November to March in the Northern Hemisphere, and May to September in the Southern Hemisphere. In fact, the name influenza comes from the Italian word influenza, meaning "influence"--referring to the "influence of the season" (winter) in causing the illness. In the tropics, where there is little change in seasons, influenza occurs year-round (though increased incidence has been noted in rainy seasons--Viboud et al., 2006). Do the cold temperatures and lower humidities of winter cause increased transmission of the flu virus? If so, why is the current H1N1 swine flu outbreak doing so well, now that it is May, traditionally the end of flu season in the Northern Hemisphere? Or could it be that indoor crowding, lack of sunlight lowering vitamin D levels, and a more depressed immune system in winter are largely responsible, as some researchers have suggested?

Flu infections increase under cold or dry conditions
To test these hypotheses, researchers at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York did a study in 2007 that looked at flu transmission among guinea pigs, which are highly susceptible to human influenza and easily transmit the virus to other guinea pigs (Lowen et al., 2007). The animals were placed in adjacent cages, so that infections could occur by airborne transmission, but not by direct contact (guinea pig lovers will be happy to know that the influenza virus-infected guinea pigs did not display detectable symptoms of disease--weight loss, fever, sneezing, and coughing--during the experiments). By carefully controlling temperature and humidity, the scientists were able to study the effects of each. They found that the animals shed much more of the virus--and over a longer period of time--at cold temperatures, which led to increased infection rates. The animals' immune system showed no signs of stress from the cold weather, arguing against the idea that cold conditions lead to increased infections by lowering the immune system. Lower humidities were also found to increase flu transmission rate, though the variation of infection rate with humidity was more complicated. The scientists built a model (Figure 1) to fit the data, and proposed that lower humidity increased infection rates through two mechanisms:

1) The stability of influenza virons in the suspended aerosol particles infected creatures cough out is dependent upon the humidity. Viruses are most stable at low RH (20%-40%), least stable at intermediate RH (50%), and stable again at high RH (60%-80%) (Schaffer et al., 1976). Thus, the virus has better staying power at the low moisture levels typical of winter.

2) At high RH (80%), exhaled respiratory droplets grow quite large as water vapor condenses around them, and these drops quickly settle to the ground under the force of gravity. Thus, even though the virus is stable at high humidities, it settles out of the atmosphere quickly, and cannot contribute to influenza virus spread.


Figure 1. A model of influenza transmission rates at 68°F (20°C) (dashed line) and 41°F (5°C) (solid line), as a function of relative humidity. Transmission efficiency is highest at low relative humidity, when influenza virions in an aerosol are relatively stable, and exhaled respiratory droplets stay small and don't settle out under the force of gravity. Transmission is diminished at intermediate humidity when virus particles are relatively unstable, but improves in parallel with influenza virus stability at higher humidities. At high humidity, evaporation from exhaled particles is limited, respiratory droplets settle out of the air, and transmission is blocked. At cold temperatures (solid line), transmission is more efficient than at warm temperatures (dashed line), but is reduced to a rate of 50% at higher humidities. Image credit: Lowen, A.C., S. Mubareka, J. Steel, and P. Palese, 2007, "Influenza Virus Transmission Is Dependent on Relative Humidity and Temperature", PLos Pathogons, October 2007.

The researchers found no guinea pig infections at 86°F (30°C), which implies that in tropical climates, people may transmit the virus by direct contact rather than by coughing and sneezing. A second study Lowen et al., 2009) confirmed this idea--at least among guinea pigs. The authors concluded, "To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that cold temperatures and low relative humidity are favorable to the spread of influenza virus. Although other factors likely contribute to the periodicity of influenza epidemics, it is clear that air temperature and RH could play an important role. Influenza virus transmission indoors could potentially be curtailed by simply maintaining room air at warm temperatures (>20 °C) and either intermediate (50%) or high (80%) RHs".

Climate change and influenza
The results of this study imply that global warming may significantly reduce influenza world-wide, since a warmer climate will also be more humid. Typically, there are between three and five million cases of severe flu and up to 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. In the United States alone, an average of 41,400 deaths and 1.68 million hospitalizations are attributed to influenza each year. A warmer world should reduce these numbers, if the current research is correct. However, these gains must be balanced against the possibility that malaria will become more widespread in a warmer world, since malaria kills about one million people per year.


Figure 2. Combined flu and pneumonia deaths in the United Kingdom during the great 1918 flu pandemic showed that the flu had three distinct peaks: one in June - July (a relatively mild form of the disease), followed by an extremely deadly outbreak in October, then another during the winter of 1918 - 1919. The 1918 flu pandemic infected 1/3 of the world's population, killing 50 - 100 million people. Strangely, the October peak occurred almost world-wide, with Bombay, India and Boston, Massachusetts peaking the same week. Image credit: Jordan, E., "Epidemic influenza: a survey", Chicago: American Medical Association, 1927.

Flu pandemics show little seasonality
The current Mexican H1N1 swine flu outbreak is seemingly unusual, since it is hitting at the end of the traditional flu season, in April - May. However, when a new flu strain develops that humans have no immunity to, the new strain is less constrained by seasonality. According to Dr. Jeffery Taubenberger, the virologist who helped isolate the genetic code of the virus responsible for the great 1918 flu pandemic, "Historical records since the 16th century suggest that new influenza pandemics may appear at any time of year, not necessarily in the familiar annual winter patterns of inter-pandemic years, presumably because newly shifted influenza viruses behave differently when they find a universal or highly susceptible human population." Indeed, the 1918 flu pandemic reached its peak in September - October (Figure 2), and the most recent flu pandemic, the 1968 Hong Kong flu, began in July. It wouldn't surprise me if the current flu outbreak dies down in the Northern Hemisphere over the summer months, as the combined effects of high temperatures, higher humidities, less indoor crowding, and increased sunlight interfere with its spread. However, we need to be ready for the virus to reappear in the Fall--potentially in a mutated, more virulent form--such as occurred during the 1918 flu pandemic.

References
Lowen, A.C., S. Mubareka, J. Steel, and P. Palese, 2007, "Influenza Virus Transmission Is Dependent on Relative Humidity and Temperature", PLos Pathogons, October 2007.

Lowen, A.C., S. Mubareka, J. Steel, and P. Palese, 2009, "High Temperature (30°C) Blocks Aerosol but Not Contact Transmission of Influenza Virus", Journal of Virology, June 2008, p. 5650-5652, Vol. 82, No. 11 0022-538X/08/$08.00+0 doi:10.1128/JVI.00325-08

Schaffer, F.L., M.E. Soergel, and D.C. Straube, 1976, "Survival of airborne influenza virus: effects of propagating host, relative humidity, and composition of spray fluids", Arch Virol 51: 263-273.

Viboud, C, W.J. Alonso, and L. Simonsen, 2006, "Influenza in tropical regions", PLoS Med 3: e89 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030089.

Vitamin D and influenza links:
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/51913.ph p
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/0808 11195629.htm
http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/science/research/v itamin-d-and-influenza.shtml

Jeff Masters

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Quoting CycloneOz:
I have to test my hurricane outfit [the Cat 5 configuration].

I wanted to get sprayed with a fire hose, but the local fire departments were too scared to do it. They were scared I'd get hurt and sue them. Pffft! I put my hand and arm directly into a 250 psi driven stream of water from a fire pump-truck. It barely moved me. Double-Pfffft!

So I'm forced to one up them with a test that could actually hurt...

My plan is to hike all that gear 2 miles down a mountain trail [family in tow] to some spectacular water falls.

I will stand beneath the falls in my Cat 5 configuration and my daughters will beat me with baseball bats. Then they're going to try and drown me.

How's that for a test? Huh, firemen?

Video release of my testing - June 1st on YouTube.

2 questions:

Do you have Health and Life Insurance?
Have you ever seen the movie Jackass?
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Quoting melwerle:
Had some unexpected tstorms that were pretty cool today and MAJOR downpours in the middle of a gorgeous sunny day - wierd wierd. Driving down the street in pouring rain and then NOTHING. Like a wall of rain and then no rain. Looking at the radar, we might expect some of that line that is coming across but who knows...we had a 20% chance today and got slammed.

Gotta love the weather.


The rain dance worked, huh?

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Quoting CybrTeddy:


O.O I'd be afraid for the EF-5 configuration.


I guess the EF-5 would be the entire Tampa Bay Rays equipped with baseball bats rather than just the two daughters.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Had some unexpected tstorms that were pretty cool today and MAJOR downpours in the middle of a gorgeous sunny day - wierd wierd. Driving down the street in pouring rain and then NOTHING. Like a wall of rain and then no rain. Looking at the radar, we might expect some of that line that is coming across but who knows...we had a 20% chance today and got slammed.

Gotta love the weather.
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Quoting CycloneOz:
I have to test my hurricane outfit [the Cat 5 configuration].

I wanted to get sprayed with a fire hose, but the local fire departments were too scared to do it. They were scared I'd get hurt and sue them. Pffft! I put my hand and arm directly into a 250 psi driven stream of water from a fire pump-truck. It barely moved me. Double-Pfffft!

So I'm forced to one up them with a test that could actually hurt...

My plan is to hike all that gear 2 miles down a mountain trail [family in tow] to some spectacular water falls.

I will stand beneath the falls in my Cat 5 configuration and my daughters will beat me with baseball bats. Then they're going to try and drown me.

How's that for a test? Huh, firemen?

Video release of my testing - June 1st on YouTube.


O.O I'd be afraid for the EF-5 configuration.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I have to test my hurricane outfit [the Cat 5 configuration].

I wanted to get sprayed with a fire hose, but the local fire departments were too scared to do it. They were scared I'd get hurt and sue them. Pffft! I put my hand and arm directly into a 250 psi driven stream of water from a fire pump-truck. It barely moved me. Double-Pfffft!

So I'm forced to one up them with a test that could actually hurt...

My plan is to hike all that gear 2 miles down a mountain trail [family in tow] to some spectacular water falls.

I will stand beneath the falls in my Cat 5 configuration and my daughters will beat me with baseball bats. Then they're going to try and drown me.

How's that for a test? Huh, firemen?

Video release of my testing - June 1st on YouTube.
Member Since: August 26, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 3617
Quoting theshepherd:
Yeah, your right, implants would be fantasy....But, is a saliva sample for DNA too much to ask???
;>)
Which would be cheaper, DNA samples or tattoos j/k

Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:
Fugate's confirmation as FEMA chief blocked by Louisiana senator

Despite meeting with former Florida emergency management chief Craig Fugate Monday, U.S. Sen. David Vitter, R-La., said he'll continue to block Fugate's confirmation as head of the FEMA until the Obama administration allows rebuilding projects in south Louisiana.

OMG - A hostage situation!!!
How anyone can think that it is a good idea to withhold the approval of the director of a Federal EMERGENCY Management Agency. Hopefully, no area (including LA) will have a need for FEMA any time soon.
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Quoting gulfcoastdweller:


you rock OZ..and BTW, if we get a hit here on the Ms Gulf Coast, and 1 block from the Gulf, you are more than welcome to come on down and set up

and I just want to say, I too was shocked about the amout of ppl that stayed for Ike.

I pray that when a major hit comes to Tampa, ppl will evac out. I say it all the time ( and get crap for it too lol but y'all know it will be the truth) if a Cat 3 or 4 hits Tampa, it will make New Orleans look like a mud puddle. Yes, I agree that statement is harsh, but sometimes the truth hurts. I'm sure you all have seen the computer sims on what will happen to downtown Tampa if a Cat 3/4 hits...........I do not have the link, it is about 3 yrs old, maybe someone can post the link for me. It's not pretty!


I appreciate it CoastDweller! :)

As you well know, the MS gulf coast is one of the most dangerous places to be in a major hurricane, second only to a swamp. If a major storm ever does hit MS, I expect that I'll be setting up a block from the Gulf, but not at a private dwelling. I need concrete and steel...and lots of it!

I would expect a good, "safe" setup would be at the Biloxi Regional Medical Center [Google Earth - lat 30.396424 / lon -88.890933]. There is a parking structure [concrete/steel] and it's about a block away from the gulf. Those parking structures actually on the gulf are tempting, but no...

Believe it or not, hurricanes frighten me. Everytime I travel into one, I'm like repeating OMG, OMG, OMG...almost like a prayer for safety.

To help me with the safety aspect, I do what I can do. The rest is up to the God-force. Having said that, I created a hurricane outfit that is unique. I've got tanked air for 20 minutes. I've got an inflatable life vest. I have structural fire boots with steel soles [step on a nail, I'll bend it]. Safety glasses, Bell motorcycle helmet, 2-layers of kevlar undergarments [neck to toe], kevlar neck guard, utility belt with 3-kinds of knives, cutters, lighting, and such. Literally...the list keeps going. This is one, very expensive suit. If anyone is going to survive a catastrophic storm event, it will be me in this outfit.

Technologically, I have an underwater HD camera with proprietary Bluetooth audio into the camera from two microphones. One mic will be on my head to capture my comments, the other will be attached to the underwater housing rig. And again...there's even more stuff. And yes, it was expensive, too.

I have a Dell XPS monster at home loaded with Adobe software [including Premiere].

I've also got magnetic signs for my mini-van, a golf flag pin with hurricane flags that will be mounted to my roof rack...and of course, the remote weather station with dual, deep-cycle batteries, ATC3K helmet cam [web cam], Dell Mini-9 laptop and a VerizonWireless cellphone to make the connection [if no other wireless source is available].

As you can see, I take what I'm doing pretty seriously and even though I'm sometimes pretty scared, I've got some odds in my favor to both live through the event as well as capture it on tape.
Member Since: August 26, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 3617
835. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Philippines Atmospherical Geophysical Astronomical Services and Administration

"EMONG" has intensified into a typhoon as it continues to move closer to Northern Luzon.

Tropical Cyclone Bulletin #2
==================================
At 5:00 AM PhST, Typhoon Emong (Chan-hom) located at 15.1°N 116.4°E or 350 kms west-southwest of Iba, Zambales has 10 minute sustained winds of 120 km/h (65 knots) near the center with gustiness up to 150 km/h (80 knots). The storm is reported as moving northeast at 8 knots.

Warning Signals #2 (60-100 km/h winds)
==============================

Luzon Region
------------
1.Ilocos Norte
2.Abra
3.Ilocos Sur
4.La Union
5.Benguet
6.Pangasinan
7.Zambales

Warning Signals #1 (30-60 km/h winds)
==============================

Luzon Region
-----------
1.Apayao
2.Kalinga
3.Mt. Province
4.Ifugao
5.Nueva Vizcaya
6.Quirino
7.Nueva Ecija
8.Tarlac
9.Pampanga
10.Bataan

Residents living in low lying and mountainous areas under signal # 1 and 2 are alerted against flashfloods and landslides.

The rest of Central Luzon, Southern Luzon including Metro Manila will continue to experience occasional rains.

The public and the disaster coordinating councils concerned are advised to take appropriate actions and watch for the next bulletin to be issued at 11 A.M. today.
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Pat. That one always makes me weep. But very important that its shown as often as possible. There are many many things not shown in the media about these storms.

I agree Keeper a direct hit on NYC would be a worst case scenario.As a veteran of the Rita evac, I don't think they can move that many people out in time.It would be a nightmare for any major city.

Yeah I learned the hard way AND I LEFT. LOL.But it was weeks before the MRE'S,water and ice showed up in my town. And even longer for some other smaller towns farther inland. And that was before the power was restored. And I can't even go there about FEMA.Sigh. Lets hope the next time its better for whoever it happens to.
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
imo i beleive the worst case would be a c4 or c5 slamming head on into new york city where are we going to put 10 million people in a hurry


Even worse is if that happened after the storm already paid a visit to Miami or Tampa in a double hit.
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832. beell
i'm afraid i can't do that, Dave...
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Storm is just west of me, time to shut Hal down, BBL.
Member Since: September 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 20601
One of the things I did when getting to Texas Sept 24th,10 days Post Ike landfall with Portlight Relief..was to Listen to folks, and I listened carefully.

Many folks said,"I cant believe this could happen to me".

or... "I cant believe this HAS happened".

But the most memorable words I heard was from a First Responder who was in NOLA in 05,and was now beat from S & R in his own county.
His words were,..
"Just look how fast we went from talking about those Folks,to being those folks."

The look on that Guys face..,I'll never forget.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127536
829. beell
Fugate does not have to worry about "looking better" in this deal. Vitter may look better if he gains some agreements for his state.

Less than a month from the start of the season-may not be the time for a p!$$1n contest though

From the link:

It's not unusual for senators to hold presidential appointees for leverage during policy disputes. The Senate government affairs committee approved Fugate's nomination by a voice vote last week, and he has been well-received on Capitol Hill. But the full Senate can't vote until Vitter lifts his hold.

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Hi Pat and Keeper, it's good to see you!

This year will be even harder for me if we have to leave, because pops, {hubbie} is much worse! But sense we are so close to the gulf, if something comes along this year, I will pack him up and be on my way!
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Quoting gulfcoastdweller:


you rock OZ..and BTW, if we get a hit here on the Ms Gulf Coast, and 1 block from the Gulf, you are more than welcome to come on down and set up

and I just want to say, I too was shocked about the amout of ppl that stayed for Ike.

I pray that when a major hit comes to Tampa, ppl will evac out. I say it all the time ( and get crap for it too lol but y'all know it will be the truth) if a Cat 3 or 4 hits Tampa, it will make New Orleans look like a mud puddle. Yes, I agree that statement is harsh, but sometimes the truth hurts. I'm sure you all have seen the computer sims on what will happen to downtown Tampa if a Cat 3/4 hits...........I do not have the link, it is about 3 yrs old, maybe someone can post the link for me. It's not pretty!
imo i beleive the worst case would be a c4 or c5 slamming head on into new york city where are we going to put 10 million people in a hurry
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 169 Comments: 53296
Calamity Knows no Borders,..nor watches B-roll.

Tampa is a Risk city without a recent Strike in Living memory.

I shy away from belittling another's ones woes,be it a individual,or a City.

I'll let the one who Made the Mistake of staying tell ya from his own Mouth...in 2005

Since were yakking it over.

Chalmette,East of NOLA..Aug 29th 05

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127536
Hi again homeless. I didn't understand that comment either {812}. I don't believe in forcing people out. My earlier comment was about helping out those that wish to leave!

Hi OZ, stay safe this year! I look forward to your vids, and hopefully they WILL educate some on the reasons to evacuate!
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you should always have enough on hand to last you at least 72 hrs or 3 days at the minumum if you can
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 169 Comments: 53296
Quoting gulfcoastdweller:
Hi All,

I am suppose to leave in a 1/2 hr to go to Jackson, Ms....I see they are catching heck up there. Can anyone tell me how long all this bad weather will last?


System is moving east at 35 mph and has a Tornado Watch with it. Be careful on the road.

Member Since: September 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 20601
Hurricane Ike's 9-Foot Floods to Bring "Certain Death"

Willie Drye
for National Geographic News
September 12, 2008

Hurricane Ike's expected massive storm surge and flooding have prompted National Weather Service officials to issue a rare and chilling "certain death" warning as the storm barrels toward the Texas coast tonight.


"We rarely issue this warning unless there is a severe, impending catastrophe," said Chris Sisco, a meteorologist at the National Hurricane Center in Miami. "It's very serious."

The warning reads: "Neighborhoods that are affected by the storm surge … and possibly entire coastal communities … will be inundated during the period of peak storm tide.

"Persons not heeding evacuation orders in single-family, one- or two-story homes may face certain death. … Widespread and devastating personal property damage is likely elsewhere."

Sisco said Ike's storm surge—a mound of water created by a hurricane's winds—could reach 20 feet (6.1 meters) around the center of the storm.

And the surge could be "funneled" as it is driven inland into some bays and rivers, causing the surge to rise to as much as 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some places, he said.


The National Weather Service advisory also warned that in some places, floodwaters could be as much as 9 feet (2.7 meters) deep more than 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) inland.

The center of Hurricane Ike is expected to make landfall late Friday night or early Saturday morning near Galveston, Texas, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) south of the metropolitan city of Houston.

Flooding Threat

As of Friday morning, Ike was a Category 2 hurricane with peak winds of about 105 miles (169 kilometers) an hour.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127536
812. I don't understand about "Lets see who looks better"?

815. All I can say is plz have you supplies. Plz don't count on the Gov/Fema to help you within the first week of a major strike. Many church groups are strapped for cash. Bascially it DOES fall on you for your own survival.

This is very good advice. From someone who has been there. And been there...And learned the hard way.
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Quoting Weather456:
762. Patrap 6:13 PM GMT on May 06, 2009
Wave, smave,it dosent matter,since Development dosent occur that far east in May,nor June.

Focus closer in,like the Western Caribbean,the GOM proper or the BOC.


There isn't rule that dictates we should look only at developing systems. tropical weather encompasses things other than tropical cylone, example tropical waves and some us watch these items for research purposes not just to look at something that will develop into a cat 5 and hit Whoppo State.



well i like watchin tropics for it gives clues to possible outcomes and activity ahead as a prelude to the main coarse to follow

its a big picture but some can look and not see the picture or maybe not want to see the picture but there are lots of clues to be looking for sst's sal set up of ba high water vapour content dynamical flow of the mid upper lower levels set up and activity of african wave machine which by the way produces up to a hundred or more waves startin normally around this time right till end of sept early oct of all those waves be happy that only 10 to 15 will become anything at all
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 169 Comments: 53296
When I attended Hurricane Ike, I was shocked by how many people stayed during the hurricane. Quite literally, the city was near its population capacity.

I've developed XtremeHurricanes.com to frighten people into evacuating. In fact, my homepage states my goal as frankly as I've just done here.

You're never going to get everyone to evacuate. They're gonna stay put for one reason or another. Even the NWS statement for residents to be prepared "for loss of life" wasn't strong enough to convince people to evacuate from Hurricane Ike.

My website will be free of charge and I will set up some monitoring equipment for everyone online during hurricane events. As for me, however, I'll be out there in the storm trying to capture frightening hurricane footage. It may takes years trying to garner enough scarey stuff for people to begin to heed the warnings, but in the end...I may be barking up the same tree as the NWS.
Member Since: August 26, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 3617
Your welcome Mermaid. It is you who should get some thanks.Maybe your ideas will start spreading. :)
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Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:
Fugate's confirmation as FEMA chief blocked by Louisiana senator

Despite meeting with former Florida emergency management chief Craig Fugate Monday, U.S. Sen. David Vitter, R-La., said he'll continue to block Fugate's confirmation as head of the FEMA until the Obama administration allows rebuilding projects in south Louisiana.




Awesome!!!!
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Fugate's confirmation as FEMA chief blocked by Louisiana senator

Despite meeting with former Florida emergency management chief Craig Fugate Monday, U.S. Sen. David Vitter, R-La., said he'll continue to block Fugate's confirmation as head of the FEMA until the Obama administration allows rebuilding projects in south Louisiana.

Member Since: September 23, 2005 Posts: 14 Comments: 10873
Hi Atmo, it's good to see you. I do understand that some elderly folks just don't want to leave. It truely is a hard situation.

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Quoting Ossqss:


Your right on that one.

I wonder if they would let us put chips in them like our pets for ID later on and save the markers referenced earlier. J/K
Yeah, your right, implants would be fantasy....But, is a saliva sample for DNA too much to ask???
;>)
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Nice Pic AGGIE!!!
Member Since: August 30, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1837
Nice to see trouble still brews on here...lol

Greetings after a while. Hope everyone is well. Fingers are crossed for a quiet season (3 1/2 weeks away already????). I stumbled across our Hurricane Emergency kit in the back storage room this past weekend. I hope the dust can keep gathering on it.
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Thanks
Quoting Stormchaser2007:


Ah my friend Trinidad is not in the US. Currency is different as well.


thanks bro! didn't realize he was from Trinidad
Member Since: August 30, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1837
Stumbled across pic of Katrina's eyewall from within...on one of the P-3s

Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
Sure, some elderly folks have nowhere to go, or lack the means to get themselves somewhere.

Others, like my grandmother, had every capability, and could have gone as near as 15 miles inland (to my cousins, which was the plan), or any one of a dozen relatives' homes within a few hours drive, even with evacuation traffic. And any one of them would have welcomed her.

As for forcing evacs, forget it. Not enforceable. Charging money for rescues when alternatives were offered and mandatory evacs called for? Go for it. Please do. Already happens in the mountains and on frozen lakes. You put yourself in that situation.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
Thanks homeless! I am always trying to think of ways we can help.

Hurricane season is almost here. I hope everyone is prepared, and stays safe this year!
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Quoting SomeRandomTexan:


ME TOO! ME TOO!

Since America is founded on the fundamentals of Christianity then I would assume saying God is allowed. Last time I checked the money you are carrying in your pocket has "In God We Trust" printed on it. If you don't like it you can always give it to me. Always accepting free money. :)


Ah my friend Trinidad is not in the US. Currency is different as well.
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Quoting theshepherd:
Sheriffs are elected officials.
Dragging several thousands voters out by the head of their hair ain't gonna happen.


Your right on that one.

I wonder if they would let us put chips in them like our pets for ID later on and save the markers referenced earlier. J/K
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8185
I think there are ways of getting people out of harms way without forceably dragging them out.

Henceforth, I will agree with theShepard in saying that the elected sheriff will not remove anyone with force since his job depends on those people voting for him.

I do however agree with the point on charging for air rescues and any other rescue that puts me, the tax payer, out of money. Jmho!
Member Since: August 30, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1837
Quoting DDR:

Is this some religion blog?I don't think so,pfff your gone.


ME TOO! ME TOO!

Since America is founded on the fundamentals of Christianity then I would assume saying God is allowed. Last time I checked the money you are carrying in your pocket has "In God We Trust" printed on it. If you don't like it you can always give it to me. Always accepting free money. :)
Member Since: August 30, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1837
hello everyone been awhile since i have been on here...what is everyones thoughts on the upcoming season
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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