Volcanic Winter

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:18 PM GMT on April 24, 2009

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"The sun was dark and its darkness lasted for eighteen months; each day it shone for about four hours; and still this light was only a feeble shadow; the fruits did not ripen and the wine tasted like sour grapes." As this Michael the Syrian quote regarding the weather of 536 A.D. demonstrates, a climate catastrophe that blots out the sun can really spoil your day. Procopius of Caesarea remarked: "During this year [536 A.D.] a most dread portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness. and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear." Many documents from 535 - 536 A.D.--the time of King Arthur in Britain--speak of the terrible "dry fog" or cloud of dust that obscured the sun, causing widespread crop failures in Europe, and summer frosts, drought, and famine in China. Tree ring studies in Europe confirm several years of very poor growth around that time, and ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica show highly elevated levels of atmospheric sulfuric acid dust existed.

Though some scientists believe the climate calamity of 535-536 A.D. was due to a comet or asteroid hitting the Earth, it is widely thought that the event was probably caused by the most massive volcanic eruption of the past 1500 years. This eruption threw so much sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas into the stratosphere that a "Volcanic Winter" resulted. Sulfur dioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid droplets (aerosol particles), which are highly reflective and reduce the amount of incoming sunlight. The potential eruption that led to the 535 - 536 A.D. climate calamity would have likely been a magnitude 7 event on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)--a "super colossal" eruption that one can expect to occur only once every 1000 years. The Volcanic Explosivity Index is a logarithmic scale like the Richter scale used to rate earthquakes, so a magnitude 7 eruption would eject ten times more material than the two largest eruptions of the past century--the magnitude 6 eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines (1991) and Novarupta in Alaska (1912).


Figure 1. An 18 km-high volcanic plume from one of a series of explosive eruptions of Mount Pinatubo beginning on 12 June 1991, viewed from Clark Air Base (about 20 km east of the volcano). Three days later, the most powerful eruption produced a plume that rose nearly 40 km, penetrating well into the stratosphere. Pinatubo's sulfur emissions cooled the Earth by about 1°F (0.5°C) for 1 - 2 years. (Photograph by David H. Harlow, USGS.)

Super-colossal eruptions
There has been only one other magnitude 7 "super-colossal" eruption in the past 1500 years--the massive eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora in 1815. The sulfur pumped by this eruption into the stratosphere dimmed sunlight so extensively that global temperatures fell by about 2°F (1°C) for 1 - 2 years afterward. This triggered the famed Year Without a Summer in 1816. Killing frosts and snow storms in May and June 1816 in Eastern Canada and New England caused widespread crop failures, and lake and river ice were observed as far south as Pennsylvania in July and August. The Tambora eruption was about 40% smaller than the 535 - 536 A.D. event, as measured by the number of sulfur aerosol particles deposited in Greenland ice cores.

In an article published in 2008 in the American Geophysical Union journal EOS, Dr. Ken Verosub of the University of California, Davis Department of Geology estimated that future eruptions capable of causing "Volcanic Winter" effects severe enough to depress global temperatures by 2°F (1°C) and trigger widespread crop failures for 1 - 2 years afterwards should occur about once every 200 - 300 years. Even a magnitude 6 eruption, such as the 1600 eruption of the Peruvian volcano Huaynaputina, can cause climatic change capable of killing millions of people. The Huaynaputina eruption is blamed for the Russian famine of 1601-1603, which killed over half a million people and led to the overthrow of Tsar Boris Godunov. Thankfully, the climatic impacts of all of these historic magnitude 6 and 7 eruptions have been relatively short-lived. After about two years, the sulfuric acid aerosol particles have settled out of the stratosphere, returning the climate to its former state.

Mega-colossal eruptions
Even more extreme eruptions have occurred in Earth's past--eruptions ten times more powerful than the Tambora eruption, earning a ranking of 8 out of 8 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). These "mega-colossal" eruptions occur only about once every 10,000 years, but have much longer-lasting climatic effects and thus are a more significant threat to human civilization. According to the Toba Catastrophe Theory, a mega-colossal eruption at Toba Caldera, Sumatra, about 74,000 years ago, was 3500 times greater than the Tambora eruption. According to model simulations, an eruption this large can pump so much sulfur dioxide gas into the stratosphere that the atmosphere does not have the capacity to oxidize all the SO2 to sulfuric acid aerosol. The atmosphere oxidizes as much SO2 as it can, leaving a huge reservoir of SO2 in the stratosphere. This SO2 gradually reacts to form sulfuric acid as the OH radicals needed for this reaction are gradually produced. The result is a much longer-lasting climate effect than the 1 - 2 years that the magnitude 6 and 7 events of 535, 1600, 1815, and 1991 lasted. A magnitude 8 eruption like the Toba event can cool the globe for 6 - 10 years (Figure 3), which may be long enough to trigger an ice age--if the climate is already on the verge of tipping into an ice age. Rampino and Self (1992) argued that the sulfur aerosol veil from Toba was thick and long-lasting enough to cool the globe by 3 - 5°C (5 - 9°F), pushing the climate--which was already cooling and perhaps headed towards an ice age--into a full-scale ice age. They suggested that the response of Canada to the volcano played a particularly important role, with their model predicting a 12°C (22°F) reduction in summer temperatures in Canada. This would have favored the growth of the Laurentide ice sheet, increasing the reflectivity (albedo) of the Earth, reflecting more sunlight and reducing temperatures further. The controversial Toba Catastrophe Theory asserts that the resulting sudden climate change reduced the Earth's population of humans to 1,000 - 10,000 breeding pairs. More recent research has shed considerable doubt on the idea that the Toba eruption pushed the climate into an ice age, though. Oppenheimer (2002) found evidence supporting only a 2°F (1.1°C) cooling of the globe, for the 1000 years after the Toba eruption. Zielinski et al. (1996) argued that the Toba eruption did not trigger a major ice age--the eruption merely pushed the globe into a cool period that lasted 200 years. Interestingly, a previous super-eruption of Toba, 788,000 years ago, coincided with a transition from an ice age to a warm period.


Figure 2. The 100x30 square kilometer Toba Caldera is situated in north-central Sumatra around 200 km north of the Equator. It is comprised of four overlapping calderas aligned with the Sumatran volcanic chain. Repeated volcanic cataclysms culminated in the stupendous expulsion of the Younger Toba Tuff around 74,000 years ago. The lake area is 100 square kilometers. Samosir Island formed as a result of subsequent uplift above the evacuated magma reservoir. Such resurgent domes are typically seen as the concluding phase of a large eruption. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) browse images for path/row 128/58 (6 September 1999) and 129/58 (21 January 2001) from http://landsat7.usgs.gov/. Copyright USGS. Image source: Oppenheimer, C., 2002, "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba 74 kyr BP?"Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1593-1609.


Figure 3. Total mass of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosol in the stratosphere (heavy solid and dotted lines, respectively) modeled for a 6 petagram stratospheric injection of SO2. Observed SO2 and aerosol mass for the 1991 Pinatubo eruption are shown for comparison. The much larger amount of SO2 in the Toba simulation soaks up all available oxidants in the stratosphere leading to a much longer lifetime of SO2 and, in turn, prolonging the manufacture of sulfate aerosol. Data from Read et al. (1993) and Bekki et al. (1996). Image source: Oppenheimer, C., 2002, "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba 74 kyr BP?"Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1593-1609.

When can we expect the next mega-colossal eruption?
Given the observed frequency of one mega-colossal magnitude 8 volcanic eruption every 1.4 million years, the odds of another hitting in the next 100 years is about .014%, according to Mason et al., 2004. This works out to a 1% chance over the next 7200 years. Rampino (2002) puts the average frequency of such eruptions at once every 50,000 years--about double the frequency with which 1-km diameter comets or asteroids capable of causing a similar climatic effect hit the Earth. A likely location for the next mega-colossal eruption would be at the Yellowstone Caldera in Wyoming, which has had magnitude 7 or 8 eruptions as often as every 650,000 years. The last mega-colossal eruption there was about 640,000 years ago. But don't worry, the seismic activity under Yellowstone Lake earlier this year has died down, and the uplift of the ground over the Yellowstone caldera that was as large as 7 cm/yr (2.7 inches/yr) between 2004 - 2006 has now fallen to 4 cm/yr, according to the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. The USGS states that "the Yellowstone volcanic system shows no signs that it is headed toward such an eruption. The probability of a large caldera-forming eruption within the next few thousand years is exceedingly low".

What would happen if a magnitude 8 mega-colossal eruption were to occur today?
If a mega-colossal eruption were to occur today, it would probably not be able to push Earth into an ice age, according to a modeling study done by Jones et al. (2005). They found that an eruption like Toba would cool the Earth by about 17°F (9.4°C) after the first year (Figure 3), and the temperature would gradually recover to 3°F (1.8°C) below normal ten years after the eruption. They found that the eruption would reduce rainfall by 50% globally for the first two years, and up to 90% over the Amazon, Southeast Asia, and central Africa. This would obviously be very bad for human civilization, with the cold and lack of sunshine causing widespread crop failures and starvation of millions of people. Furthermore, the eruption would lead to a partial loss of Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing highly damaging levels of ultraviolet light to penetrate to the surface.

Not even a mega-colossal eruption of this magnitude would stop global warming, though. The level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would not be affected by the volcanic eruption, and warming would resume where it left off once the stratospheric dust settled out in a decade. With civilization crippled by the disaster, greenhouse gas emissions would be substantially reduced, though (small solace!) If we really want to say goodbye to civilization, a repeat of the only magnitude 9 eruption in recorded history should do the trick--the magnitude 9.2 La Garita, Colorado blast of 27.8 million years ago (Mason et al., 2004).


Figure 4. Annual near-surface temperature anomalies for the year following a mega-colossal volcanic eruption like the Toba eruption of 74,000 years ago, if it were to occur today. Most land areas cool by 22°F (12°C) compared to average. Some areas, like Africa, cool by 29°F (16°C). Image credit: Jones, G.S., et al., 2005, "An AOGCM simulation of the climate response to a volcanic super-eruption", Climate Dynamics, 25, Numbers 7-8, pp 725-738, December, 2005.

What would happen if a magnitude 7 super-colossal eruption were to occur today?
An eruption today like the magnitude 7 events of 535 A.D. or 1815 would cause cause wide-spread crop failures for 1 - 2 years after the eruption. With food supplies in the world already stretched thin by rising population, decreased water availability, and conversion of cropland to grow biofuels, a major volcanic eruption would probably create widespread famine, threatening the lives of millions of people. Wars over scarce resources might result. However, society's vulnerability to major volcanic eruptions is less than it was, since the globe has warmed significantly in the past 200 years. The famines from the eruptions of 1600 and 1815 both occurred during the Little Ice Age, when global temperatures were about 1.4°F (0.8°C) cooler than today. Crop failures would not be as wide-spread with today's global temperatures, if a suer-colossal eruption were to occur. Fifty years from now, when global temperatures are expected to be at least 1°C warmer, a magnitude 7 eruption should only be able to cool the climate down to year 2009 levels.

Volcanoes also warm the climate
While volcanoes cool the climate on time scales of 1 - 2 years, they act to warm the climate over longer time scales, since they are an important source of natural CO2 to the atmosphere. Volcanoes add 0.1 - 0.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon to the atmosphere each year, which is about 1 - 3% of what human carbon emissions to the atmosphere were in 2007, according to the Global Carbon Project. In fact, volcanoes are largely responsible for the natural CO2 in the atmosphere, and helped make life possible on Earth. Why, then, haven't CO2 levels continuously risen over geologic time, turning Earth into a steamy hothouse? In fact, CO2 levels have fallen considerably since the time of the dinosaurs--how can this be? Well, volcano-emitted CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by chemical weathering. This occurs when rain and snow fall on rocks containing silicates. The moisture and silicates react with CO2, pulling it out of the air. The carbon removed from the air is then washed into the sea, where it ends up in ocean sediments that gradually harden into rock. Rates of chemical weathering on Earth have accelerated since the time of the dinosaurs, largely due to the recent uplift of the Himalaya Mountains and Tibetan Plateau. These highlands undergo a tremendous amount of weathering, thanks to their lofty heights and the rains of the Asian Monsoon that they capture. Unfortunately, chemical weathering cannot help us with our current high levels of greenhouse gases, since chemical weathering takes thousands of years to remove significant amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere. It takes about 100,000 years for silicate weathering to remove 63% of the CO2 in the atmosphere. Thus, climate models predict that chemical weathering will solve our greenhouse gas problem in about 100,000 - 200,000 years.

For further information
PBS TV special on the 535-536 A.D. disaster.
Newspaper articles on the 535-536 A.D. disaster.
Volcanic winter article from wikipedia.
Realclimate.org has a nice article that goes into the volcano-climate connection in greater detail.

References
Bekki, S., J.A. Pyle, W. Zhong, R. Toumi, J.D. Haigh and D.M. Pyle, 1996, "The role of microphysical and chemical processes in prolonging the climate forcing of the Toba eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 23 (1996), pp. 2669-2672.

Jones, G.S., et al., 2005, "An AOGCM simulation of the climate response to a volcanic super-eruption", Climate Dynamics, 25, Numbers 7-8, pp 725-738, December, 2005.

Rampino, M.R., and S. Self, 1993, "Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of 74,000 years ago", Quaternary Research 40 (1993), pp. 269-280.

Mason, B.G., D.M. Pyle, and C. Oppenheimer, 2004, "The size and frequency of the largest observed explosive eruptions on Earth", Bulletin of Volcanology" 66, Number 8, December 2004, pp 735-748.

Oppenheimer, C., 2002, "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba 74 kyr BP?"Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1593-1609.

Rampino, M.R., 2002, "Supereruptions as a Threat to Civilizations on Earth-like Planets", Icarus, 156, Issue 2, April 2002, Pages 562-569.

Read, W.G., L. Froidevaux and J.W. Waters, 1993, "Microwave Limb Sounder measurements of stratospheric SO2 from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 20 (1993), pp. 1299-1302.

Verosub, K.L., and J. Lippman, 2008, "Global Impacts of the 1600 Eruption of Peru's Huaynaputina Volcano", EOS 89, 15, 8 April 2008, pp 141-142.

Zielinski, G.A. et al., 1996, "Potential Atmospheric Impact of the Toba Mega-Eruption 71,000 Years Ago", Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 8, pp. 837-840, 1996.

Portlight moves to provide relief for South Carolina wildfires
South Carolina's biggest wildfire in more than three decades --a blaze four miles wide--destroyed dozens of homes near Myrtle Beach yesterday. Portlight Strategies, Inc. is preparing to respond to this disaster, focusing on providing drinks and sanitary products to firefighters, particularly to rural volunteer fire departments and other first responders which do not have the same resources as some of the larger paid departments. To help out, visit the Portlight South Carolina fire relief web page. Thanks!

Jeff Masters

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rotflmfao orca ya get em
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Quoting Orcasystems:


The same times everyday... just like they have for the last three years that you have been asking the same question.


Thought I was the only one that noticed lol
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Quoting PresidentialElection:
When does the next GFS Model output come out, folks?


The same times everyday... just like they have for the last three years that you have been asking the same question.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
Quoting CatastrophicDL:
Hey prez you sure look and sound a lot like JFV! :o)


LMAO
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Quoting PresidentialElection:
Gotcha, thank you very much there, gentlemen.
Hey prez you sure look and sound a lot like JFV! :o)
Member Since: September 3, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 1519
Thanks Keep.

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327. Skyepony (Mod)
95S

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30 mins left till draft.
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brb on your blog
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Quoting vortfix:
Is this your area Keeper?


LEADING BOW ECHO THAT PRODUCED CONSIDERABLE DAMAGING WINDS ACROSS
SOUTH-CENTRAL AND SOUTHEAST LOWER MI WILL CONTINUE EAST INTO
SOUTHWEST ONTARIO.

iam in south central ontario the sw is winsor sarina london area iam a little east of there iam watchin come across couple more hrs should be here if it holds together
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Hour to the Draft...

Wonder if my Ravens will sweep in for Boldin halfway through.

None of 'our' sports have anything like the Draft, I think it's a really novel way of doing things.
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Is this your area Keeper?


LEADING BOW ECHO THAT PRODUCED CONSIDERABLE DAMAGING WINDS ACROSS
SOUTH-CENTRAL AND SOUTHEAST LOWER MI WILL CONTINUE EAST INTO
SOUTHWEST ONTARIO.

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jfv ya should bookmark these sites so ya have them for your reference you been around long enough to know this by now

its no good having a flashlight if you have no batteries
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Yeah Keep...I've been watching that.

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ya vort lots of action today even for us guys to the north
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Quoting futuremet:


18Z


...which translates to 6:00 pm in case you didn't know.
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Quoting PresidentialElection:
When does the next GFS Model output come out, folks?


18Z
Member Since: July 19, 2008 Posts: 43 Comments: 4051
i guess thats why you're called hahaguy lol
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Photobucket


PUBLIC SEVERE WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
1121 AM CDT SAT APR 25 2009

...INTENSE SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS EXPECTED OVER PARTS OF THE
SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS PANHANDLE...WESTERN...NORTH-CENTRAL
OKLAHOMA...AND SOUTH-CENTRAL KANSAS LATE THIS AFTERNOON INTO
TONIGHT...


THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE STORM PREDICTION CENTER IN NORMAN OK IS
FORECASTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF TORNADOES....VERY LARGE HAIL...AND
DAMAGING WIND OVER PARTS OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS LATE THIS AFTERNOON
INTO TONIGHT.

THE AREAS MOST LIKELY TO EXPERIENCE THIS ACTIVITY INCLUDE

SOUTH-CENTRAL KANSAS
WESTERN AND NORTHERN OKLAHOMA
SOUTHEASTERN PARTS OF THE TEXAS PANHANDLE


ELSEWHERE...SEVERE STORMS ARE ALSO POSSIBLE FROM NORTHWEST
TEXAS...PARTS OF OKLAHOMA AND KANSAS NORTHEASTWARD INTO LOWER
MICHIGAN

MOISTURE WILL CONTINUE TO SPREAD ACROSS THE SOUTHERN PLAINS THIS
AFTERNOON AND TONIGHT AS LOW-LEVEL SOUTHERLY WINDS STRENGTHEN AHEAD
OF A JET STREAM DISTURBANCE NOW ALONG THE NEVADA-SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
BORDER.

THE COMBINATION OF INCREASING MOISTURE AND LIFT AHEAD OF THE JET
STREAM DISTURBANCE...ALONG WITH HEATING...ARE EXPECTED TO SUPPORT
THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTENSE THUNDERSTORMS OVER EASTERN PARTS OF THE
TEXAS PANHANDLE AND WESTERN OKLAHOMA.

THUNDERSTORMS WILL FIRST DEVELOP ALONG A DRYLINE...AND TO THE SOUTH
OF A FRONT...ACROSS THE SOUTHEAST TEXAS PANHANDLE AND WESTERN
OKLAHOMA BETWEEN 4-6PM CDT. CONDITIONS WILL THEN BECOME VERY
FAVORABLE FOR LONG-LIVED SUPERCELLS AS THE JET STREAM DISTURBANCE
CONTINUES EAST TOWARD THE PLAINS DURING THE EVENING. STRONG
TORNADOES WILL BE POSSIBLE...PARTICULARLY FROM 6-10PM CDT...ACROSS
WEST-CENTRAL...NORTH-CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AND SOUTH-CENTRAL KANSAS.
ADDITIONALLY...VERY LARGE HAIL OF BASEBALL SIZE AND LARGER CAN BE
EXPECTED ALONG WITH DAMAGING STRAIGHT-LINE WINDS THROUGH THE EVENING
HOURS.

STATE AND LOCAL EMERGENCY MANAGERS ARE MONITORING THIS DEVELOPING
SITUATION. THOSE IN THE THREATENED AREA ARE URGED TO REVIEW SEVERE
WEATHER SAFETY RULES AND TO LISTEN TO RADIO...TELEVISION...AND NOAA
WEATHER RADIO FOR POSSIBLE WATCHES...WARNINGS...AND STATEMENTS LATER
TODAY.


..RACY/HALES/CORFIDI.. 04/25/2009



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Quoting Cotillion:


Forgive me for being glad it's not real.

I'd rather still have a house, if it's all the same. :)


No, I meant I'd hope it wasn't real. I guess it could sound like either way though. lol
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Severe parameters are shaping up in the Moderate Risk area.
Actually, looking quite serious!






MESOSCALE DISCUSSION 0562
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
0123 PM CDT SAT APR 25 2009

AREAS AFFECTED...SOUTHEAST TX PANHANDLE...WESTERN OK...SOUTH CENTRAL
KS

CONCERNING...SEVERE POTENTIAL...WATCH LIKELY

VALID 251823Z - 252100Z

A TORNADO WATCH WILL BE REQUIRED BEFORE 22Z.

IN WAKE OF A LEAD DISTURBANCE MOVING ACROSS THE CENTRAL
PLAINS...SATELLITE SUGGESTS WEAK RIDGING RAPIDLY TRANSLATING OUT OF
NM. BACK EDGE OF THE LARGE SCALE RIDGING IS EXTRAPOLATED TO CLEAR
THE SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS 21-22Z WITH INCREASING LARGE SCALE ASCENT
THEREAFTER.

COLD FRONT HAS ESSENTIALLY STALLED FROM NORTHWEST OF
WICHITA-WOODWARD-AMARILLO WITH THE DRYLINE BEGINNING TO MIX EAST
ALONG THE I-25 CORRIDOR. CLEARING NORTH OF THE FRONT MAY SIGNAL
THAT THE BOUNDARY WILL MOVE SLIGHTLY NORTHWEST THROUGH LATE
AFTERNOON AS THE DRYLINE MIXES INTO THE SOUTHEAST TX PANHANDLE.

THUNDERSTORM INITIATION SHOULD TAKE PLACE AROUND 22Z ALONG THE
DRYLINE/FRONT OVER THE SOUTHEAST TX PANHANDLE INTO SOUTH-CENTRAL
KS...THEN BUILD SOUTHWARD ALONG THE DRYLINE TOWARD CHILDRESS 22-00Z.
MLCAPES WILL RANGE 2000-2500 J/KG.

SOMEWHAT ANEMIC VERTICAL SHEAR PROFILES NOTED CURRENTLY SHOULD
IMPROVE BY INITIATION TIME AS STRONGER SOUTHWESTERLY MID-LEVEL WINDS
OVER THE SOUTHERN ROCKIES EDGE SOUTHEASTWARD. WIND PROFILES WILL
BECOME VERY CONDUCIVE FOR SUPERCELLS WITH GIANT HAIL GREATER THAN 2
INCHES IN DIAMETER. IN FACT...AS THE GREAT BASIN UPPER TROUGH
CONTINUES TOWARD THE SOUTHERN ROCKIES...SOUTHERLY BOUNDARY LAYER
FLOW IS EXPECTED TO INCREASE TO OVER 55 KTS DURING THE EVENING.
THIS WILL NOT ONLY MAINTAIN DISCRETE SUPERCELL STRUCTURES AS RICH
MOISTURE INFLOW CONTINUES...BUT ALSO BOOST 0-1KM STORM RELATIVE
HELICITY TO AT OR ABOVE 400 M2/S2. THIS WILL LIKELY YIELD
LONG-LIVED SUPERCELLS WITH POSSIBLE STRONG TORNADOES WHICH MAY LAST
WELL BEYOND SUNSET ACROSS WEST-CENTRAL/ NORTH-CENTRAL OK INTO
SOUTH-CENTRAL KS.


..RACY.. 04/25/2009


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Quoting CybrTeddy:


On this planet
May 3rd 1999 recorded a 310 MPH sustained wind.
Off this planet
Jupiter clocked 5,000 MPH.


If the theorised hypercane did happen after the asteroid hit which wiped out the dinsoaurs, then perhaps it would have reached winds of 400mph.
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Quoting weatherblog:


I'd hope so. That would be crazy if it was real. lol


Forgive me for being glad it's not real.

I'd rather still have a house, if it's all the same. :)
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Quoting Gr8magi:
What is the strongest wind recorded?


On this planet
May 3rd 1999 recorded a 310 MPH sustained wind.
Off this planet
Jupiter clocked 5,000 MPH.
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Quoting Gr8magi:
I am curious what type of damage could a wind like that do in theory?
land would be stripped clean of everything including all life so nothing remains but the dirt and water
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Quoting Cotillion:
Just a corruption, or something. That model used often has some sort of weird problems. Makes for amusing reading.


I'd hope so. That would be crazy if it was real. lol
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Quoting Gr8magi:
I am curious what type of damage could a wind like that do in theory?


Look up Greensburg, KS from the '07 tornado. That's the approximate ballpark.

Weather records.
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What is the strongest wind recorded?
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Quoting Gr8magi:
I am curious what type of damage could a wind like that do in theory?


Nothing would be standing.
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Just a corruption, or something. That model used often has some sort of weird problems. Makes for amusing reading.
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I am curious what type of damage could a wind like that do in theory?
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Quoting Cotillion:


..Link

And yeah, it's been abnormally warm here too. Got up to mid-70s. In 2007, we didn't even get that the entire year. Funny weather.


That's got to be fake. lol
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Good affternoon all.
I can tell by the conversation in here that we are approaching the end of April.

A lot of model discussion...and that long-range GFS seems to be getting into trouble in here as usual!
LMAO

Y'all have a great weekend and get out and enjoy the good weather if you have it.

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Quoting Vortex95:
Where doth it show 308mph winds on a model I would love to see that lol


..Link

And yeah, it's been abnormally warm here too. Got up to mid-70s. In 2007, we didn't even get that the entire year. Funny weather.
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i find it funny that its only april but feels like july 79.3f outside normals are surpose to be 60's
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Quoting Cotillion:
Oooh, I do love when the model runs are corrupted.

-7 and 308mph winds in May.

..Don't think so. :D

And guys, don't get too excited; we've got the Draft first...


Ya Draft 2 hrs away lol.
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Oooh, I do love when the model runs are corrupted.

-7 and 308mph winds in May.

..Don't think so. :D

And guys, don't get too excited; we've got the Draft first...
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I find it funny the gfs still wants something to develop.
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northward thrust is in full force with stronger flow nearer to cape verde as per current ir anmi sat image this sat afternon at 130 pm edt
with low level eastly flow over south tropical atlantic across windward island into carb with a second weaken north ward thrust over e pac west sa to just south of yuc n of the central sa coast
strong west flow s yuc overcutting across nw carb between jam north to isl of youth west to frontal line cental west atlantic everything appears to be moving at a slightly increase rate at this time as zones are shifting and establishing there positions looks like this current state of things is a little ahead of normal for this time of year
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K hi everyone, this is a quick question... can someone look at Detroit radar and tell me if thats a bow echo or not? And can you tell me fast, because its on my horizon.
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About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Partly Cloudy
60 °F
Partly Cloudy