Volcanic Winter

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:18 PM GMT on April 24, 2009

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"The sun was dark and its darkness lasted for eighteen months; each day it shone for about four hours; and still this light was only a feeble shadow; the fruits did not ripen and the wine tasted like sour grapes." As this Michael the Syrian quote regarding the weather of 536 A.D. demonstrates, a climate catastrophe that blots out the sun can really spoil your day. Procopius of Caesarea remarked: "During this year [536 A.D.] a most dread portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness. and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear." Many documents from 535 - 536 A.D.--the time of King Arthur in Britain--speak of the terrible "dry fog" or cloud of dust that obscured the sun, causing widespread crop failures in Europe, and summer frosts, drought, and famine in China. Tree ring studies in Europe confirm several years of very poor growth around that time, and ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica show highly elevated levels of atmospheric sulfuric acid dust existed.

Though some scientists believe the climate calamity of 535-536 A.D. was due to a comet or asteroid hitting the Earth, it is widely thought that the event was probably caused by the most massive volcanic eruption of the past 1500 years. This eruption threw so much sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas into the stratosphere that a "Volcanic Winter" resulted. Sulfur dioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid droplets (aerosol particles), which are highly reflective and reduce the amount of incoming sunlight. The potential eruption that led to the 535 - 536 A.D. climate calamity would have likely been a magnitude 7 event on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)--a "super colossal" eruption that one can expect to occur only once every 1000 years. The Volcanic Explosivity Index is a logarithmic scale like the Richter scale used to rate earthquakes, so a magnitude 7 eruption would eject ten times more material than the two largest eruptions of the past century--the magnitude 6 eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines (1991) and Novarupta in Alaska (1912).


Figure 1. An 18 km-high volcanic plume from one of a series of explosive eruptions of Mount Pinatubo beginning on 12 June 1991, viewed from Clark Air Base (about 20 km east of the volcano). Three days later, the most powerful eruption produced a plume that rose nearly 40 km, penetrating well into the stratosphere. Pinatubo's sulfur emissions cooled the Earth by about 1°F (0.5°C) for 1 - 2 years. (Photograph by David H. Harlow, USGS.)

Super-colossal eruptions
There has been only one other magnitude 7 "super-colossal" eruption in the past 1500 years--the massive eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora in 1815. The sulfur pumped by this eruption into the stratosphere dimmed sunlight so extensively that global temperatures fell by about 2°F (1°C) for 1 - 2 years afterward. This triggered the famed Year Without a Summer in 1816. Killing frosts and snow storms in May and June 1816 in Eastern Canada and New England caused widespread crop failures, and lake and river ice were observed as far south as Pennsylvania in July and August. The Tambora eruption was about 40% smaller than the 535 - 536 A.D. event, as measured by the number of sulfur aerosol particles deposited in Greenland ice cores.

In an article published in 2008 in the American Geophysical Union journal EOS, Dr. Ken Verosub of the University of California, Davis Department of Geology estimated that future eruptions capable of causing "Volcanic Winter" effects severe enough to depress global temperatures by 2°F (1°C) and trigger widespread crop failures for 1 - 2 years afterwards should occur about once every 200 - 300 years. Even a magnitude 6 eruption, such as the 1600 eruption of the Peruvian volcano Huaynaputina, can cause climatic change capable of killing millions of people. The Huaynaputina eruption is blamed for the Russian famine of 1601-1603, which killed over half a million people and led to the overthrow of Tsar Boris Godunov. Thankfully, the climatic impacts of all of these historic magnitude 6 and 7 eruptions have been relatively short-lived. After about two years, the sulfuric acid aerosol particles have settled out of the stratosphere, returning the climate to its former state.

Mega-colossal eruptions
Even more extreme eruptions have occurred in Earth's past--eruptions ten times more powerful than the Tambora eruption, earning a ranking of 8 out of 8 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). These "mega-colossal" eruptions occur only about once every 10,000 years, but have much longer-lasting climatic effects and thus are a more significant threat to human civilization. According to the Toba Catastrophe Theory, a mega-colossal eruption at Toba Caldera, Sumatra, about 74,000 years ago, was 3500 times greater than the Tambora eruption. According to model simulations, an eruption this large can pump so much sulfur dioxide gas into the stratosphere that the atmosphere does not have the capacity to oxidize all the SO2 to sulfuric acid aerosol. The atmosphere oxidizes as much SO2 as it can, leaving a huge reservoir of SO2 in the stratosphere. This SO2 gradually reacts to form sulfuric acid as the OH radicals needed for this reaction are gradually produced. The result is a much longer-lasting climate effect than the 1 - 2 years that the magnitude 6 and 7 events of 535, 1600, 1815, and 1991 lasted. A magnitude 8 eruption like the Toba event can cool the globe for 6 - 10 years (Figure 3), which may be long enough to trigger an ice age--if the climate is already on the verge of tipping into an ice age. Rampino and Self (1992) argued that the sulfur aerosol veil from Toba was thick and long-lasting enough to cool the globe by 3 - 5°C (5 - 9°F), pushing the climate--which was already cooling and perhaps headed towards an ice age--into a full-scale ice age. They suggested that the response of Canada to the volcano played a particularly important role, with their model predicting a 12°C (22°F) reduction in summer temperatures in Canada. This would have favored the growth of the Laurentide ice sheet, increasing the reflectivity (albedo) of the Earth, reflecting more sunlight and reducing temperatures further. The controversial Toba Catastrophe Theory asserts that the resulting sudden climate change reduced the Earth's population of humans to 1,000 - 10,000 breeding pairs. More recent research has shed considerable doubt on the idea that the Toba eruption pushed the climate into an ice age, though. Oppenheimer (2002) found evidence supporting only a 2°F (1.1°C) cooling of the globe, for the 1000 years after the Toba eruption. Zielinski et al. (1996) argued that the Toba eruption did not trigger a major ice age--the eruption merely pushed the globe into a cool period that lasted 200 years. Interestingly, a previous super-eruption of Toba, 788,000 years ago, coincided with a transition from an ice age to a warm period.


Figure 2. The 100x30 square kilometer Toba Caldera is situated in north-central Sumatra around 200 km north of the Equator. It is comprised of four overlapping calderas aligned with the Sumatran volcanic chain. Repeated volcanic cataclysms culminated in the stupendous expulsion of the Younger Toba Tuff around 74,000 years ago. The lake area is 100 square kilometers. Samosir Island formed as a result of subsequent uplift above the evacuated magma reservoir. Such resurgent domes are typically seen as the concluding phase of a large eruption. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) browse images for path/row 128/58 (6 September 1999) and 129/58 (21 January 2001) from http://landsat7.usgs.gov/. Copyright USGS. Image source: Oppenheimer, C., 2002, "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba 74 kyr BP?"Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1593-1609.


Figure 3. Total mass of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosol in the stratosphere (heavy solid and dotted lines, respectively) modeled for a 6 petagram stratospheric injection of SO2. Observed SO2 and aerosol mass for the 1991 Pinatubo eruption are shown for comparison. The much larger amount of SO2 in the Toba simulation soaks up all available oxidants in the stratosphere leading to a much longer lifetime of SO2 and, in turn, prolonging the manufacture of sulfate aerosol. Data from Read et al. (1993) and Bekki et al. (1996). Image source: Oppenheimer, C., 2002, "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba 74 kyr BP?"Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1593-1609.

When can we expect the next mega-colossal eruption?
Given the observed frequency of one mega-colossal magnitude 8 volcanic eruption every 1.4 million years, the odds of another hitting in the next 100 years is about .014%, according to Mason et al., 2004. This works out to a 1% chance over the next 7200 years. Rampino (2002) puts the average frequency of such eruptions at once every 50,000 years--about double the frequency with which 1-km diameter comets or asteroids capable of causing a similar climatic effect hit the Earth. A likely location for the next mega-colossal eruption would be at the Yellowstone Caldera in Wyoming, which has had magnitude 7 or 8 eruptions as often as every 650,000 years. The last mega-colossal eruption there was about 640,000 years ago. But don't worry, the seismic activity under Yellowstone Lake earlier this year has died down, and the uplift of the ground over the Yellowstone caldera that was as large as 7 cm/yr (2.7 inches/yr) between 2004 - 2006 has now fallen to 4 cm/yr, according to the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. The USGS states that "the Yellowstone volcanic system shows no signs that it is headed toward such an eruption. The probability of a large caldera-forming eruption within the next few thousand years is exceedingly low".

What would happen if a magnitude 8 mega-colossal eruption were to occur today?
If a mega-colossal eruption were to occur today, it would probably not be able to push Earth into an ice age, according to a modeling study done by Jones et al. (2005). They found that an eruption like Toba would cool the Earth by about 17°F (9.4°C) after the first year (Figure 3), and the temperature would gradually recover to 3°F (1.8°C) below normal ten years after the eruption. They found that the eruption would reduce rainfall by 50% globally for the first two years, and up to 90% over the Amazon, Southeast Asia, and central Africa. This would obviously be very bad for human civilization, with the cold and lack of sunshine causing widespread crop failures and starvation of millions of people. Furthermore, the eruption would lead to a partial loss of Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing highly damaging levels of ultraviolet light to penetrate to the surface.

Not even a mega-colossal eruption of this magnitude would stop global warming, though. The level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would not be affected by the volcanic eruption, and warming would resume where it left off once the stratospheric dust settled out in a decade. With civilization crippled by the disaster, greenhouse gas emissions would be substantially reduced, though (small solace!) If we really want to say goodbye to civilization, a repeat of the only magnitude 9 eruption in recorded history should do the trick--the magnitude 9.2 La Garita, Colorado blast of 27.8 million years ago (Mason et al., 2004).


Figure 4. Annual near-surface temperature anomalies for the year following a mega-colossal volcanic eruption like the Toba eruption of 74,000 years ago, if it were to occur today. Most land areas cool by 22°F (12°C) compared to average. Some areas, like Africa, cool by 29°F (16°C). Image credit: Jones, G.S., et al., 2005, "An AOGCM simulation of the climate response to a volcanic super-eruption", Climate Dynamics, 25, Numbers 7-8, pp 725-738, December, 2005.

What would happen if a magnitude 7 super-colossal eruption were to occur today?
An eruption today like the magnitude 7 events of 535 A.D. or 1815 would cause cause wide-spread crop failures for 1 - 2 years after the eruption. With food supplies in the world already stretched thin by rising population, decreased water availability, and conversion of cropland to grow biofuels, a major volcanic eruption would probably create widespread famine, threatening the lives of millions of people. Wars over scarce resources might result. However, society's vulnerability to major volcanic eruptions is less than it was, since the globe has warmed significantly in the past 200 years. The famines from the eruptions of 1600 and 1815 both occurred during the Little Ice Age, when global temperatures were about 1.4°F (0.8°C) cooler than today. Crop failures would not be as wide-spread with today's global temperatures, if a suer-colossal eruption were to occur. Fifty years from now, when global temperatures are expected to be at least 1°C warmer, a magnitude 7 eruption should only be able to cool the climate down to year 2009 levels.

Volcanoes also warm the climate
While volcanoes cool the climate on time scales of 1 - 2 years, they act to warm the climate over longer time scales, since they are an important source of natural CO2 to the atmosphere. Volcanoes add 0.1 - 0.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon to the atmosphere each year, which is about 1 - 3% of what human carbon emissions to the atmosphere were in 2007, according to the Global Carbon Project. In fact, volcanoes are largely responsible for the natural CO2 in the atmosphere, and helped make life possible on Earth. Why, then, haven't CO2 levels continuously risen over geologic time, turning Earth into a steamy hothouse? In fact, CO2 levels have fallen considerably since the time of the dinosaurs--how can this be? Well, volcano-emitted CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by chemical weathering. This occurs when rain and snow fall on rocks containing silicates. The moisture and silicates react with CO2, pulling it out of the air. The carbon removed from the air is then washed into the sea, where it ends up in ocean sediments that gradually harden into rock. Rates of chemical weathering on Earth have accelerated since the time of the dinosaurs, largely due to the recent uplift of the Himalaya Mountains and Tibetan Plateau. These highlands undergo a tremendous amount of weathering, thanks to their lofty heights and the rains of the Asian Monsoon that they capture. Unfortunately, chemical weathering cannot help us with our current high levels of greenhouse gases, since chemical weathering takes thousands of years to remove significant amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere. It takes about 100,000 years for silicate weathering to remove 63% of the CO2 in the atmosphere. Thus, climate models predict that chemical weathering will solve our greenhouse gas problem in about 100,000 - 200,000 years.

For further information
PBS TV special on the 535-536 A.D. disaster.
Newspaper articles on the 535-536 A.D. disaster.
Volcanic winter article from wikipedia.
Realclimate.org has a nice article that goes into the volcano-climate connection in greater detail.

References
Bekki, S., J.A. Pyle, W. Zhong, R. Toumi, J.D. Haigh and D.M. Pyle, 1996, "The role of microphysical and chemical processes in prolonging the climate forcing of the Toba eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 23 (1996), pp. 2669-2672.

Jones, G.S., et al., 2005, "An AOGCM simulation of the climate response to a volcanic super-eruption", Climate Dynamics, 25, Numbers 7-8, pp 725-738, December, 2005.

Rampino, M.R., and S. Self, 1993, "Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of 74,000 years ago", Quaternary Research 40 (1993), pp. 269-280.

Mason, B.G., D.M. Pyle, and C. Oppenheimer, 2004, "The size and frequency of the largest observed explosive eruptions on Earth", Bulletin of Volcanology" 66, Number 8, December 2004, pp 735-748.

Oppenheimer, C., 2002, "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba 74 kyr BP?"Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1593-1609.

Rampino, M.R., 2002, "Supereruptions as a Threat to Civilizations on Earth-like Planets", Icarus, 156, Issue 2, April 2002, Pages 562-569.

Read, W.G., L. Froidevaux and J.W. Waters, 1993, "Microwave Limb Sounder measurements of stratospheric SO2 from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 20 (1993), pp. 1299-1302.

Verosub, K.L., and J. Lippman, 2008, "Global Impacts of the 1600 Eruption of Peru's Huaynaputina Volcano", EOS 89, 15, 8 April 2008, pp 141-142.

Zielinski, G.A. et al., 1996, "Potential Atmospheric Impact of the Toba Mega-Eruption 71,000 Years Ago", Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 8, pp. 837-840, 1996.

Portlight moves to provide relief for South Carolina wildfires
South Carolina's biggest wildfire in more than three decades --a blaze four miles wide--destroyed dozens of homes near Myrtle Beach yesterday. Portlight Strategies, Inc. is preparing to respond to this disaster, focusing on providing drinks and sanitary products to firefighters, particularly to rural volunteer fire departments and other first responders which do not have the same resources as some of the larger paid departments. To help out, visit the Portlight South Carolina fire relief web page. Thanks!

Jeff Masters

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Quoting KEHCharleston:
Umm...a question, if you please.
About being banned.
I have not experienced that dubious distinction.... as of yet.
When you log on, do you get a message telling you that you have been banned? and why? and how long?


You get a message saying "You have been banned from the blogs for insert time period here."

During this time, I think you can still mail other users, you just cannot create or access blogs.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 602 Comments: 21304
Banning really isn't funny. I've never been banned (that I know of), but last year it seems that I got caught in someone elses IP ban & could not access any WU page while I was on vacation.
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1682. hahaguy
Quoting KEHCharleston:
Umm...a question, if you please.
About being banned.
I have not experienced that dubious distinction.... as of yet.
When you log on, do you get a message telling you that you have been banned? and why? and how long?


It ranges from how long and the seriousness of the reason, I got banned fro 24hrs last year for calling out someone. When I tried to go into the blog it said that you are banned.
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
good evening buds sir
so is gfs still depicting a storm 115 days out just wondering drakoen do you have any idea where its going bud sir
lol


LMAO
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 602 Comments: 21304
Umm...a question, if you please.
About being banned.
I have not experienced that dubious distinction.... as of yet.
When you log on, do you get a message telling you that you have been banned? and why? and how long?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1679. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
let us know if ya get any hate mail oops i mean e-mail from him
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56067
Quoting SevereHurricane:


Good sir,
When will this be?
The latest GFS is saying it will hit July 18th, 2025.
I better stay up for the midnight GFS to panic some more...
I will be back for witch hour...


LMAO..Alright we should stop it now..it's getting a little mean.
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1677. Patrap


The Who dosent have the Flu..
..not here on wu.

Eat tofu,..to avoid the Flu,
..You.





WHO Raises Swine Flu Pandemic Alert Level
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1676. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
i dont think his banned cane at least not from the site maybe from docs blog i just went to his blog and its still there if he was banned you would get this user has been banned by admin but ya don't so he may be lurking
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56067
Quoting CaneAddict:
So at this time in the immediate surrounding area's do you forsee this system becoming a catastrophic category five hurricane coming towards SE Florida? Do you believe me and my son should board the flight now and get out of here? Sir, your thoughts will determine this life or death decision.


Good sir,
When will this be?
The latest GFS is saying it will hit July 18th, 2025.
I better stay up for the midnight GFS to panic some more...
I will be back for witch hour...
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
I'm not sure ask JFV..
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1673. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
cane do you think i should break out my flashlights so iam ready for such a storm
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56067
1672. hahaguy
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
good evening buds sir
so is gfs still depicting a storm 115 days out just wondering drakoen do you have any idea where its going bud sir
lol
'

LMAO... keeper your not right ..LOL
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
So at this time in the immediate surrounding area's do you forsee this system becoming a catastrophic category five hurricane coming towards SE Florida? Do you believe me and my son should board the flight now and get out of here? Sir, your thoughts will determine this life or death decision.
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1670. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
good evening buds sir
so is gfs still depicting a storm 115 days out just wondering drakoen do you have any idea where its going bud sir
lol
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56067
Not sure yet...maybe his third handle. lol
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
Quoting CaneAddict:
Yes..JFV and PresidentialElection are both the same. Both handles will have funerals this Friday.


Im laughing so hard right now it hurts...
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
LOL Cane! Who's going to flush????
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Quoting CaneAddict:


I can also confirm it...My first hint was that he isnt on posting 20 comments asking if the midnight run is out yet. lol


OMG!
Thats so true yet funny!!!
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
Quoting hahaguy:


And we haven't seen the excessive use of "Sir". LOL


Or "Buddy"...
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
Yes..JFV and PresidentialElection are both the same. Both handles will have funerals this Friday.
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
JFV is PresidentialElection? Huh? "That's right. Brantly is Whitfield, Whitfield is Brantly.." I'm so confused.
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HAHA!
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1660. hahaguy
Quoting CaneAddict:


I can also confirm it...My first hint was that he isnt on posting 20 comments asking if the midnight run is out yet. lol


And we haven't seen the excessive use of "Sir". LOL
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1659. JRRP
Quoting GeoffreyWPB:


Yes sir, I can confirm that comment.

who banned him?????
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 6213
Quoting GeoffreyWPB:


Yes sir, I can confirm that comment.


I can also confirm it...My first hint was that he isnt on posting 20 comments asking if the midnight run is out yet. lol
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
Quoting CaneAddict:


HAHA...

*In memory of the PresentialElection Handle*

2007-2009


ROFLMAO!!!!!!!!!!!
Photobucket
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
Quoting KoritheMan:
1630:

I think a better comparison to the possible (emphasis on possible) tropical cyclone in the Caribbean during the next week and a half or so, would be 1970's Hurricane Alma, not the 1966 incarnate. The latter developed on May 17, and briefly attained hurricane status before weakening due to unfavorable upper-level winds.


I agree.
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Quoting futuremet:
lol PresidentialElection got banned?


Yes sir, I can confirm that comment.
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Quoting Drakoen:


don't you mean reiderate? lol


Right, my bad.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 602 Comments: 21304
1644. GeoffreyWPB Once the season starts and the admin. starts getting serious, a lot of us will be banned. If I remember correctly, people got banned for posting pictures of fish...when they though a storm would only affect the shipping lanes. They really do get strict!!!


It was only the repeat fish, not the original.
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The WHO raised the alert level to Phase 4, meaning there is sustained human-to-human transmission of the virus causing outbreaks in at least one country



eeeeeeek
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115454
1651. Drakoen
Quoting KoritheMan:


To reiterate what was said in an earlier comment, "You don't wanna know". Seriously.


don't you mean reiderate? lol
Member Since: October 28, 2006 Posts: 57 Comments: 30830
lol PresidentialElection got banned?
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Quoting CaneAddict:


Yeah...His maturity level worries me to know that he has a son...If he can't deal with little comments on a blog..what's he gonna do when his son dirtys his diaper?


XD, so true.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 602 Comments: 21304
Quoting Drakoen:
I haven't seen this wicked side.... *feels left out*


To reiterate what was said in an earlier comment, "You don't wanna know". Seriously.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 602 Comments: 21304
heh the admins cant keep up with there own blogs
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115454
Quoting KoritheMan:
Yeah, I got into an argument with JFV through WU mail back when he was on the JFV handle.


Yeah...His maturity level worries me to know that he has a son...If he can't deal with little comments on a blog..what's he gonna do when his son dirtys his diaper?
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
KoritheMan IM me thank you
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115454
Once the season starts and the admin. starts getting serious, a lot of us will be banned. If I remember correctly, people got banned for posting pictures of fish...when they though a storm would only affect the shipping lanes. They really do get strict!!!
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1643. Drakoen
I haven't seen this wicked side.... *feels left out*
Member Since: October 28, 2006 Posts: 57 Comments: 30830
Quoting GeoffreyWPB:
In memory of our banned friend...."Is anyone going to stay up for the midnight run of the GFS?"


HAHA...

*In memory of the PresentialElection Handle*

2007-2009
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1630:

I think a better comparison to the possible (emphasis on possible) tropical cyclone in the Caribbean during the next week and a half or so, would be 1970's Hurricane Alma, not the 1966 incarnate. The latter developed on May 17, and briefly attained hurricane status before weakening due to unfavorable upper-level winds.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 602 Comments: 21304
OMG....i knew he had a wicked and mean side to him...but that was over the top.
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Yeah, I got into an argument with JFV through WU mail back when he was on the JFV handle.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 602 Comments: 21304
Ya'll do try to keep it civil here, OK?
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I'll pipe in with my two cents...

He sent me some whoppers too.

Ok kids - have a fun night - off to bed for me. Stayed up way too late last. Old broads need to go to bed early. Not at 2 a.m.
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In memory of our banned friend...."Is anyone going to stay up for the midnight run of the GFS?"
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Ossqss:


I feel slighted, I did not get a single one


You didn't want any of them. Believe me...
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
1634. Ossqss
Quoting SevereHurricane:


I received some really nice messages too...


I feel slighted, I did not get a single one
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8188

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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