Volcanic Winter

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:18 PM GMT on April 24, 2009

Share this Blog
7
+

"The sun was dark and its darkness lasted for eighteen months; each day it shone for about four hours; and still this light was only a feeble shadow; the fruits did not ripen and the wine tasted like sour grapes." As this Michael the Syrian quote regarding the weather of 536 A.D. demonstrates, a climate catastrophe that blots out the sun can really spoil your day. Procopius of Caesarea remarked: "During this year [536 A.D.] a most dread portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness. and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear." Many documents from 535 - 536 A.D.--the time of King Arthur in Britain--speak of the terrible "dry fog" or cloud of dust that obscured the sun, causing widespread crop failures in Europe, and summer frosts, drought, and famine in China. Tree ring studies in Europe confirm several years of very poor growth around that time, and ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica show highly elevated levels of atmospheric sulfuric acid dust existed.

Though some scientists believe the climate calamity of 535-536 A.D. was due to a comet or asteroid hitting the Earth, it is widely thought that the event was probably caused by the most massive volcanic eruption of the past 1500 years. This eruption threw so much sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas into the stratosphere that a "Volcanic Winter" resulted. Sulfur dioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid droplets (aerosol particles), which are highly reflective and reduce the amount of incoming sunlight. The potential eruption that led to the 535 - 536 A.D. climate calamity would have likely been a magnitude 7 event on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)--a "super colossal" eruption that one can expect to occur only once every 1000 years. The Volcanic Explosivity Index is a logarithmic scale like the Richter scale used to rate earthquakes, so a magnitude 7 eruption would eject ten times more material than the two largest eruptions of the past century--the magnitude 6 eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines (1991) and Novarupta in Alaska (1912).


Figure 1. An 18 km-high volcanic plume from one of a series of explosive eruptions of Mount Pinatubo beginning on 12 June 1991, viewed from Clark Air Base (about 20 km east of the volcano). Three days later, the most powerful eruption produced a plume that rose nearly 40 km, penetrating well into the stratosphere. Pinatubo's sulfur emissions cooled the Earth by about 1°F (0.5°C) for 1 - 2 years. (Photograph by David H. Harlow, USGS.)

Super-colossal eruptions
There has been only one other magnitude 7 "super-colossal" eruption in the past 1500 years--the massive eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora in 1815. The sulfur pumped by this eruption into the stratosphere dimmed sunlight so extensively that global temperatures fell by about 2°F (1°C) for 1 - 2 years afterward. This triggered the famed Year Without a Summer in 1816. Killing frosts and snow storms in May and June 1816 in Eastern Canada and New England caused widespread crop failures, and lake and river ice were observed as far south as Pennsylvania in July and August. The Tambora eruption was about 40% smaller than the 535 - 536 A.D. event, as measured by the number of sulfur aerosol particles deposited in Greenland ice cores.

In an article published in 2008 in the American Geophysical Union journal EOS, Dr. Ken Verosub of the University of California, Davis Department of Geology estimated that future eruptions capable of causing "Volcanic Winter" effects severe enough to depress global temperatures by 2°F (1°C) and trigger widespread crop failures for 1 - 2 years afterwards should occur about once every 200 - 300 years. Even a magnitude 6 eruption, such as the 1600 eruption of the Peruvian volcano Huaynaputina, can cause climatic change capable of killing millions of people. The Huaynaputina eruption is blamed for the Russian famine of 1601-1603, which killed over half a million people and led to the overthrow of Tsar Boris Godunov. Thankfully, the climatic impacts of all of these historic magnitude 6 and 7 eruptions have been relatively short-lived. After about two years, the sulfuric acid aerosol particles have settled out of the stratosphere, returning the climate to its former state.

Mega-colossal eruptions
Even more extreme eruptions have occurred in Earth's past--eruptions ten times more powerful than the Tambora eruption, earning a ranking of 8 out of 8 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). These "mega-colossal" eruptions occur only about once every 10,000 years, but have much longer-lasting climatic effects and thus are a more significant threat to human civilization. According to the Toba Catastrophe Theory, a mega-colossal eruption at Toba Caldera, Sumatra, about 74,000 years ago, was 3500 times greater than the Tambora eruption. According to model simulations, an eruption this large can pump so much sulfur dioxide gas into the stratosphere that the atmosphere does not have the capacity to oxidize all the SO2 to sulfuric acid aerosol. The atmosphere oxidizes as much SO2 as it can, leaving a huge reservoir of SO2 in the stratosphere. This SO2 gradually reacts to form sulfuric acid as the OH radicals needed for this reaction are gradually produced. The result is a much longer-lasting climate effect than the 1 - 2 years that the magnitude 6 and 7 events of 535, 1600, 1815, and 1991 lasted. A magnitude 8 eruption like the Toba event can cool the globe for 6 - 10 years (Figure 3), which may be long enough to trigger an ice age--if the climate is already on the verge of tipping into an ice age. Rampino and Self (1992) argued that the sulfur aerosol veil from Toba was thick and long-lasting enough to cool the globe by 3 - 5°C (5 - 9°F), pushing the climate--which was already cooling and perhaps headed towards an ice age--into a full-scale ice age. They suggested that the response of Canada to the volcano played a particularly important role, with their model predicting a 12°C (22°F) reduction in summer temperatures in Canada. This would have favored the growth of the Laurentide ice sheet, increasing the reflectivity (albedo) of the Earth, reflecting more sunlight and reducing temperatures further. The controversial Toba Catastrophe Theory asserts that the resulting sudden climate change reduced the Earth's population of humans to 1,000 - 10,000 breeding pairs. More recent research has shed considerable doubt on the idea that the Toba eruption pushed the climate into an ice age, though. Oppenheimer (2002) found evidence supporting only a 2°F (1.1°C) cooling of the globe, for the 1000 years after the Toba eruption. Zielinski et al. (1996) argued that the Toba eruption did not trigger a major ice age--the eruption merely pushed the globe into a cool period that lasted 200 years. Interestingly, a previous super-eruption of Toba, 788,000 years ago, coincided with a transition from an ice age to a warm period.


Figure 2. The 100x30 square kilometer Toba Caldera is situated in north-central Sumatra around 200 km north of the Equator. It is comprised of four overlapping calderas aligned with the Sumatran volcanic chain. Repeated volcanic cataclysms culminated in the stupendous expulsion of the Younger Toba Tuff around 74,000 years ago. The lake area is 100 square kilometers. Samosir Island formed as a result of subsequent uplift above the evacuated magma reservoir. Such resurgent domes are typically seen as the concluding phase of a large eruption. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) browse images for path/row 128/58 (6 September 1999) and 129/58 (21 January 2001) from http://landsat7.usgs.gov/. Copyright USGS. Image source: Oppenheimer, C., 2002, "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba 74 kyr BP?"Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1593-1609.


Figure 3. Total mass of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosol in the stratosphere (heavy solid and dotted lines, respectively) modeled for a 6 petagram stratospheric injection of SO2. Observed SO2 and aerosol mass for the 1991 Pinatubo eruption are shown for comparison. The much larger amount of SO2 in the Toba simulation soaks up all available oxidants in the stratosphere leading to a much longer lifetime of SO2 and, in turn, prolonging the manufacture of sulfate aerosol. Data from Read et al. (1993) and Bekki et al. (1996). Image source: Oppenheimer, C., 2002, "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba 74 kyr BP?"Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1593-1609.

When can we expect the next mega-colossal eruption?
Given the observed frequency of one mega-colossal magnitude 8 volcanic eruption every 1.4 million years, the odds of another hitting in the next 100 years is about .014%, according to Mason et al., 2004. This works out to a 1% chance over the next 7200 years. Rampino (2002) puts the average frequency of such eruptions at once every 50,000 years--about double the frequency with which 1-km diameter comets or asteroids capable of causing a similar climatic effect hit the Earth. A likely location for the next mega-colossal eruption would be at the Yellowstone Caldera in Wyoming, which has had magnitude 7 or 8 eruptions as often as every 650,000 years. The last mega-colossal eruption there was about 640,000 years ago. But don't worry, the seismic activity under Yellowstone Lake earlier this year has died down, and the uplift of the ground over the Yellowstone caldera that was as large as 7 cm/yr (2.7 inches/yr) between 2004 - 2006 has now fallen to 4 cm/yr, according to the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. The USGS states that "the Yellowstone volcanic system shows no signs that it is headed toward such an eruption. The probability of a large caldera-forming eruption within the next few thousand years is exceedingly low".

What would happen if a magnitude 8 mega-colossal eruption were to occur today?
If a mega-colossal eruption were to occur today, it would probably not be able to push Earth into an ice age, according to a modeling study done by Jones et al. (2005). They found that an eruption like Toba would cool the Earth by about 17°F (9.4°C) after the first year (Figure 3), and the temperature would gradually recover to 3°F (1.8°C) below normal ten years after the eruption. They found that the eruption would reduce rainfall by 50% globally for the first two years, and up to 90% over the Amazon, Southeast Asia, and central Africa. This would obviously be very bad for human civilization, with the cold and lack of sunshine causing widespread crop failures and starvation of millions of people. Furthermore, the eruption would lead to a partial loss of Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing highly damaging levels of ultraviolet light to penetrate to the surface.

Not even a mega-colossal eruption of this magnitude would stop global warming, though. The level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would not be affected by the volcanic eruption, and warming would resume where it left off once the stratospheric dust settled out in a decade. With civilization crippled by the disaster, greenhouse gas emissions would be substantially reduced, though (small solace!) If we really want to say goodbye to civilization, a repeat of the only magnitude 9 eruption in recorded history should do the trick--the magnitude 9.2 La Garita, Colorado blast of 27.8 million years ago (Mason et al., 2004).


Figure 4. Annual near-surface temperature anomalies for the year following a mega-colossal volcanic eruption like the Toba eruption of 74,000 years ago, if it were to occur today. Most land areas cool by 22°F (12°C) compared to average. Some areas, like Africa, cool by 29°F (16°C). Image credit: Jones, G.S., et al., 2005, "An AOGCM simulation of the climate response to a volcanic super-eruption", Climate Dynamics, 25, Numbers 7-8, pp 725-738, December, 2005.

What would happen if a magnitude 7 super-colossal eruption were to occur today?
An eruption today like the magnitude 7 events of 535 A.D. or 1815 would cause cause wide-spread crop failures for 1 - 2 years after the eruption. With food supplies in the world already stretched thin by rising population, decreased water availability, and conversion of cropland to grow biofuels, a major volcanic eruption would probably create widespread famine, threatening the lives of millions of people. Wars over scarce resources might result. However, society's vulnerability to major volcanic eruptions is less than it was, since the globe has warmed significantly in the past 200 years. The famines from the eruptions of 1600 and 1815 both occurred during the Little Ice Age, when global temperatures were about 1.4°F (0.8°C) cooler than today. Crop failures would not be as wide-spread with today's global temperatures, if a suer-colossal eruption were to occur. Fifty years from now, when global temperatures are expected to be at least 1°C warmer, a magnitude 7 eruption should only be able to cool the climate down to year 2009 levels.

Volcanoes also warm the climate
While volcanoes cool the climate on time scales of 1 - 2 years, they act to warm the climate over longer time scales, since they are an important source of natural CO2 to the atmosphere. Volcanoes add 0.1 - 0.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon to the atmosphere each year, which is about 1 - 3% of what human carbon emissions to the atmosphere were in 2007, according to the Global Carbon Project. In fact, volcanoes are largely responsible for the natural CO2 in the atmosphere, and helped make life possible on Earth. Why, then, haven't CO2 levels continuously risen over geologic time, turning Earth into a steamy hothouse? In fact, CO2 levels have fallen considerably since the time of the dinosaurs--how can this be? Well, volcano-emitted CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by chemical weathering. This occurs when rain and snow fall on rocks containing silicates. The moisture and silicates react with CO2, pulling it out of the air. The carbon removed from the air is then washed into the sea, where it ends up in ocean sediments that gradually harden into rock. Rates of chemical weathering on Earth have accelerated since the time of the dinosaurs, largely due to the recent uplift of the Himalaya Mountains and Tibetan Plateau. These highlands undergo a tremendous amount of weathering, thanks to their lofty heights and the rains of the Asian Monsoon that they capture. Unfortunately, chemical weathering cannot help us with our current high levels of greenhouse gases, since chemical weathering takes thousands of years to remove significant amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere. It takes about 100,000 years for silicate weathering to remove 63% of the CO2 in the atmosphere. Thus, climate models predict that chemical weathering will solve our greenhouse gas problem in about 100,000 - 200,000 years.

For further information
PBS TV special on the 535-536 A.D. disaster.
Newspaper articles on the 535-536 A.D. disaster.
Volcanic winter article from wikipedia.
Realclimate.org has a nice article that goes into the volcano-climate connection in greater detail.

References
Bekki, S., J.A. Pyle, W. Zhong, R. Toumi, J.D. Haigh and D.M. Pyle, 1996, "The role of microphysical and chemical processes in prolonging the climate forcing of the Toba eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 23 (1996), pp. 2669-2672.

Jones, G.S., et al., 2005, "An AOGCM simulation of the climate response to a volcanic super-eruption", Climate Dynamics, 25, Numbers 7-8, pp 725-738, December, 2005.

Rampino, M.R., and S. Self, 1993, "Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of 74,000 years ago", Quaternary Research 40 (1993), pp. 269-280.

Mason, B.G., D.M. Pyle, and C. Oppenheimer, 2004, "The size and frequency of the largest observed explosive eruptions on Earth", Bulletin of Volcanology" 66, Number 8, December 2004, pp 735-748.

Oppenheimer, C., 2002, "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba 74 kyr BP?"Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1593-1609.

Rampino, M.R., 2002, "Supereruptions as a Threat to Civilizations on Earth-like Planets", Icarus, 156, Issue 2, April 2002, Pages 562-569.

Read, W.G., L. Froidevaux and J.W. Waters, 1993, "Microwave Limb Sounder measurements of stratospheric SO2 from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 20 (1993), pp. 1299-1302.

Verosub, K.L., and J. Lippman, 2008, "Global Impacts of the 1600 Eruption of Peru's Huaynaputina Volcano", EOS 89, 15, 8 April 2008, pp 141-142.

Zielinski, G.A. et al., 1996, "Potential Atmospheric Impact of the Toba Mega-Eruption 71,000 Years Ago", Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 8, pp. 837-840, 1996.

Portlight moves to provide relief for South Carolina wildfires
South Carolina's biggest wildfire in more than three decades --a blaze four miles wide--destroyed dozens of homes near Myrtle Beach yesterday. Portlight Strategies, Inc. is preparing to respond to this disaster, focusing on providing drinks and sanitary products to firefighters, particularly to rural volunteer fire departments and other first responders which do not have the same resources as some of the larger paid departments. To help out, visit the Portlight South Carolina fire relief web page. Thanks!

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 1734 - 1684

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46Blog Index

For those in here..this is a useful map to track the latest Swine Flu cases..Night now!


View H1N1 Swine Flu
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1733. Ossqss
Humm, the math is adding up on this item

The words still stand out on level 4

"rapid pandemic containment operation"

Level 5 description. L8R

Phase 5 is characterized by human-to-human spread of the virus into at least two countries in one WHO region. While most countries will not be affected at this stage, the declaration of Phase 5 is a strong signal that a pandemic is imminent and that the time to finalize the organization, communication, and implementation of the planned mitigation measures is short.

Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CaneWarning:
He's always been nice to me. He sent me a very nice email just yesterday.


I suppose you haven't seen the dark side...
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
Night John Boy
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CaneAddict:
HAHA, If he can go to college and STUDY Tropical Meterology and still not know anything..then , I highly doubt he will be brilliant enough to change his IP. LMAO.

Night all!


LOL...
Member Since: June 9, 2007 Posts: 4 Comments: 15875
1729. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
night CaneAddict
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
HAHA, If he can go to college and STUDY Tropical Meterology and still not know anything..then , I highly doubt he will be brilliant enough to change his IP. LMAO.

Night all!
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1727. HTV
<blockquote class='blogquote'>Quoting CaneAddict:
I'd think he would be permanently banned. So many people complained and reported him it would be useless to unban him in 24 hours just so the Admins get bothered again with a bunch of complaints. I'll bet he's gone for good.

Banned till he changes IP and e-mail.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1719. KEHCharleston 3:18 AM GMT on April 28, 2009

thanks that was a good laugh..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1723

I'll probably just go to sleep..i'm beat. Actually I am going to go lay down now..good night all!
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1724. HTV
<blockquote class='blogquote'>Quoting CaneAddict:
I'd think he would be permanently banned. So many people complained and reported him it would be useless to unban him in 24 hours just so the Admins get bothered again with a bunch of complaints. I'll bet he's gone for good.
Banned till he changes IP and e-mail address.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1723. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
oops again I mess up with names

CaneAddict I meant
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Well..one nice email does not do good for the other 10 nasty harrasing emails.
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1720. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
you got about 3-4 hours before 0600 UTC CaneWarning for those model runs.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I'd think he would be permanently banned. So many people complained and reported him it would be useless to unban him in 24 hours just so the Admins get bothered again with a bunch of complaints. I'll bet he's gone for good.
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
He's always been nice to me. He sent me a very nice email just yesterday.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I'm debating on whether or not to stay up for the GFS run..or not.
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 3 Comments: 2151
1715. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
Quoting presslord:
Good grief!!!!!! Did he get banned again already?
yeah all his posts are gone from docs blog but it may only be for 24 hrs cause ya can still access his blog and mail
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1714. Ossqss
One for each day of the week, except Sunday.



Coming soon, Lysol scented masks.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
it says 1700 posts i think 1000 of them are jfv's and the rest is everyone else


LMAO!
Sounds close keeper...
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
1711. HadesGodWyvern
Yes - Care
No - Family
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1711. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Philippines Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomical Services and Administration

Tropical Weather Special Warning
===========================

A low pressure area was estimated at 240 kms east of central Luzon (15.5N 123.8E). This weather disturbance is expected to remain almost stationary and will bring occasional to frequent rains over the provinces of Aurora, Quezon, Camarines provinces, Catanduanes and Albay which may trigger flash flooding. Residents in these areas are advised to take all the necessary precautionary measures.

Another low pressure area was estimated at 870 kms east of northern Mindanao (9.0N 135.0E). This disturbance is still too far east of the country at this time to cause any threats.

---
if anyone cares.. or has families in the Philippines
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1710. hahaguy
Quoting presslord:
Good grief!!!!!! Did he get banned again already?


Hope so.
Member Since: August 12, 2007 Posts: 2 Comments: 2838
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
it says 1700 posts i think 1000 of them are jfv's and the rest is everyone else

The above post is 1705, but on the blog directory for Master's blog, it says 1556


Ossqss: Good question. Maybe one of the bacteria that hibernate (encapsulate), like TB? Or... maybe something anerobic like tetanus?


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good grief!!!!!! Did he get banned again already?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
send MX a hurricane that would take care of it
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1706. cdo
It does not kill the swine flu unfortunately.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1705. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
it says 1700 posts i think 1000 of them are jfv's and the rest is everyone else
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
149 deaths/2000 Cases in Mexico= ~7.5% or ~ one in thirteen.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1703. Patrap
Quoting Ossqss:
I do have a serious, trivial, question for you all. What is the .1% of stuff that Lysol doesn't kill. It says kills 99.9% of everything that is alive, so what is it that lives throught that ???



Blog post's.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1702. cdo
a person at work was coughing up a storm....we think he is down with da swine......
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Ossqss:
I do have a serious, trivial, question for you all. What is the .1% of stuff that Lysol doesn't kill. It says kills 99.9% of everything that is alive, so what is it that lives throught that ???
JFV
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Anyone else notice a discrepancy between actual number of posts on this blog and the blog directory?
Not just Master's blog, but a few others as well.
Or is it just me?

KOTG - I suppose I could survive a 24 hour ban. If not, then I need to get a life
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
the number of deaths is rather meaningless without the number of those infected....which we don't know....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1698. Ossqss
I do have a serious, trivial, question for you all. What is the .1% of stuff that Lysol doesn't kill. It says kills 99.9% of everything that is alive, so what is it that lives throught that ???
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1697. cdo
t-minus how much time before he has another user name? Predictions on what it will be?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1696. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
keh i have been here since 2005 aug i myself have had 4 24 hr bans since i been here all of them from docs blog never been totally blocked from site yet knock on wood
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CycloneOz:


......why worry now.

.

why worry????
-December 2005 to January 2009: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention receives reports of 12 cases of human infection with swine flu. Five of these 12 cases occurred in patients who had direct exposure to pigs and six reported being near pigs

-April 27: The World Health Organization raises its pandemic alert status to Phase 4, meaning there is sustained human-to-human transmission of the virus causing outbreaks in at least one country.

Cordova said 1,995 people have been hospitalized with serious cases of pneumonia since mid-April and about half of those have been released. The government does not yet know how many were swine flu. The CDC reports the suspected death toll in Mexico has climbed to 149. The number of confirmed cases in the U.S. climbs to 48 in five states.


Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting futuremet:


He made another account "keywestman" during October...


I forgot about that...
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
Be Prepared
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KoritheMan:


He'll be a Category 5 on the Troll Scale. I think we need a new preparation plan to deal with such immense destruction of the blog.


I am more than ready.
I had a whole box of these shipped to me today...
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
Quoting SevereHurricane:
He made the other handle over a year ago...

Link


He made another account "keywestman" during October...
Member Since: July 19, 2008 Posts: 43 Comments: 4051
Thanks everyone. Once the season really begins, I will play nice and keep on topic... well, I will TRY to play nice and keep on topic....umm...
{sigh}
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting HTV:
I've held off making any predictions for this tropical season up till now, but evidence of late has convinced me without a doubt that the fury of JFV/Prez will again be a force to be reckoned with during the height of this season. Sorry Drak.


He'll be a Category 5 on the Troll Scale. I think we need a new preparation plan to deal with such immense destruction of the blog.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1688. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
Quoting KEHCharleston:
Umm...a question, if you please.
About being banned.
I have not experienced that dubious distinction.... as of yet.
When you log on, do you get a message telling you that you have been banned? and why? and how long?


Banned
This user has been banned by WunderBlogAdmin.



thats about what ya will see you cab still see all comments as long as you don't sign in if ya sign in you will see the above
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
You guys have me Roflmao!!!! (LOL's so hard side splits open)

Poor guy had some serious issues he needed to deal with. Maybe he should have stuck to lurking...

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1686. HTV
I've held off making any predictions for this tropical season up till now, but evidence of late has convinced me without a doubt that the fury of JFV/Prez will again be a force to be reckoned with during the height of this season. Sorry Drak.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
He made the other handle over a year ago...

Link
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
Quoting KEHCharleston:
Umm...a question, if you please.
About being banned.
I have not experienced that dubious distinction.... as of yet.
When you log on, do you get a message telling you that you have been banned? and why? and how long?


You get a message saying "You have been banned from the blogs for insert time period here."

During this time, I think you can still mail other users, you just cannot create or access blogs.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 1734 - 1684

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Partly Cloudy
75 °F
Partly Cloudy