Redoubt volcano unlikely to have a major climate impact

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:27 PM GMT on March 24, 2009

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Alaska's Redoubt Volcano continues to erupt, with the latest blast coming just after midnight Eastern time (7:41pm AKDT). The latest eruption threw ash 50,000 feet into the air, but the ash has settled to the ground and the ashfall advisory for cities to the north and northwest of Anchorage such as Talkeetna has expired. Redoubt is located about 100 miles southwest of Alaska's most populous city, Anchorage. The prevailing southerly winds deposited a swath of ash about 200 miles long to the north of the volcano (Figure 1). Redoubt last erupted between December 1989 - April 1990, and its ash clouds presented a major hazard to aviation. On December 16, 1989, Redoubt's eruption spewed ash into the air to a height of 14,000 m (45,000 ft) catching KLM Royal Dutch Airlines flight 867, a Boeing 747 aircraft, in the plume. All four engines stalled and the aircraft plummeted 13,000 feet before the pilot was able to restart the engines and land safely in Anchorage. The total costs to the aviation industry from the 1989 - 1990 eruption were about $100 million. Eighty percent of these costs were due to damaged equipment. For more information on the Redoubt eruption, check out the Alaska Volcano Observatory home page.


Figure 1. Ash on the snow to the north of Alaska's Mt. Redoubt crater in this true color image from NASA's Terra satellite. Image taken 21:49 GMT March 23, 2009. Image credit: Johnathan Dehn, Geographic Information Network of Alaska..


Redoubt's effect on the climate should be minimal
Many historic volcanic eruptions have had a major cooling impact on Earth's climate. However, Redoubt is very unlikely to be one of them. To see why this is, let's examine recent volcanic eruptions that have had a significant cooling effect on the climate. In the past 200 years, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines (June 1991), El Chichon (Mexico, 1982), Mt. Agung (Indonesia, 1963), Santa Maria (Guatemala, 1902) Krakatoa (Indonesia, 1883), and Tambora (1815) all created noticeable cooling. As one can see from a plot of the solar radiation reaching Mauna Loa in Hawaii (Figure 2), the Mt. Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions caused a greater than 10% drop in sunlight reaching the surface. The eruption of Tambora in 1815 had an even greater impact, triggering the famed Year Without a Summer in 1816. Killing frosts and snow storms in May and June 1816 in Eastern Canada and New England caused widespread crop failures, and lake and river ice were observed as far south as Pennsylvania in July and August. Volcanic eruptions cause this kind of climate cooling by throwing large amounts of sulfur dioxide gas into the stratosphere. This gas reacts with water to form sulphuric acid droplets (aerosol particles), which are highly reflective, and reduce the amount of incoming sunlight.


Figure 2. Reduced solar radiation due to volcanic aerosols as measured at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Image credit: NOAA/ESRL.

You'll notice from the list of eruptions above that all of these climate-cooling events were from volcanoes in the tropics. Above the tropics, the stratosphere's circulation features rising air, which pulls the sulfur-containing volcanic aerosols high into the stratosphere. Upper-level winds in the stratosphere tend to flow from the Equator to the poles, so sulfur aerosols from equatorial eruptions get spread out over both hemispheres. These aerosol particles take a year or two to settle back down to earth, since there is no rain in the stratosphere to help remove them. However, if a major volcanic eruption occurs in the mid-latitudes or polar regions, the circulation of the stratosphere in those regions generally features pole-ward-flowing, sinking air, and the volcanic aerosol particles are not able to penetrate high in the stratosphere or get spread out around the entire globe. Redoubt is located near 59° north latitude, far from the tropics, and thus is unlikely to be able to inject significant amounts of sulfur aerosols into the stratosphere. Furthermore, the previous 1989 - 1990 eruption of Redoubt (Figure 3) put only about 1/100 of the amount of sulfur into the air that the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo did, according to the TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group. We can expect the current eruption of Redoubt to be similar in sulfur emissions to the 1989 - 1990 eruption, and have an insignificant impact on global climate.


Figure 3. Amount of sulfur gases put into the air by recent volcanic eruptions. Note that the 1989 eruption of Redoubt put only 1/100 the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the air that the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo did. Image credit: TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group.

For more information
Realclimate.org has a nice article that goes into the volcano-climate connection in greater detail. One interesting quote from the article: There can be some exceptions to the tropics-only rule, and at least one high latitude volcano appears to have had significant climate effects; Laki (Iceland, 1783-1784). The crucial factor was that the eruption was almost continuous for over 8 months which lead to significantly elevated sulphate concentrations for that whole time over much of the Atlantic and European regions, even though stratospheric concentrations were likely not particularly exceptional.

scienceblog.com has an interesting article about the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century--the 1912 eruption of Alaska's Mt. Novarupta, located in the same chain of volcanoes as Mt. Redoubt. According to a NASA computer model, Novarupta's climate-cooling aerosols stayed north of 30°N latitude, and did not cause global cooling. However, the model indicates that the eruption may have indirectly weakened India's summer monsoon, producing an abnormally warm and dry summer over northern India.

Jeff Masters

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Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
Big time Rotation in this ....WOW!

Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
Some Nasty stuff...

Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
Quoting Skyepony:
CALCASIEU LA 3045 9344 ROOF RIPPED OFF HOUSE IN DEQUINCY REPORTED BY CALCASIEU PARISH SHERIFF OFFICE. TIME BASED ON RADAR. POSSIBLE TORNADO. (LCH)


Sky tonite and tomorrow could be very bad with these kind of CAPE values.....could see it coming a couple of days ago...

Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
TORNADO WARNING JACKSON MS - KJAN 1119 PM CDT WED MAR 25 2009
SVR T-STORM WARNING JACKSON MS - KJAN 1114 PM CDT WED MAR 25 2009
TORNADO WARNING JACKSON MS - KJAN 1111 PM CDT WED MAR 25 2009
SVR T-STORM WARNING LAKE CHARLES LA - KLCH 1102 PM CDT WED MAR 25 2009
SVR T-STORM WARNING JACKSON MS - KJAN 1100 PM CDT WED MAR 25 2009
SVR T-STORM WARNING JACKSON MS - KJAN 1058 PM CDT WED MAR 25 2009
SVR T-STORM WARNING LAKE CHARLES LA - KLCH 1057 PM CDT WED MAR 25 2009
TORNADO WARNING LAKE CHARLES LA - KLCH 1029 PM CDT WED MAR 25 2009
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
194. Skyepony (Mod)
CALCASIEU LA 3045 9344 ROOF RIPPED OFF HOUSE IN DEQUINCY REPORTED BY CALCASIEU PARISH SHERIFF OFFICE. TIME BASED ON RADAR. POSSIBLE TORNADO. (LCH)
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 173 Comments: 38148
It works in my ie as well.

I have never had anyone to complain. It is an easy way for people to get their images to not exceed the width. As long as you do not go over 100% :)

In any case, I just wonder what stretching the blog meant - I had figured you meant width. Just wasn't sure since it is such an easy fix.
Fluid width should adjust to each persons screen size (although maybe with the old browsers it might not work - not sure about Opera either) On the majority of browsers it should work though

Night folks
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This is not good....exactly as i posted this morning on blog....

Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
188. KEHCharleston 11:39 PM EDT on March 25, 2009

Its the other browsers that is the problem i guess!
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
Quoting Ossqss:
TampaSpin, you need to give us some guidance --- Stuff is still kickin around the ring. Gotta go --

Magnitude Location Time
4.8 Tonga region 1 hour ago Map
4.9 South of the Fiji Islands 3 hours ago Map
5.2 Tonga region 5 hours ago Map

earthquake.usgs.gov


The outer surface of the Earth sits ontop of a pool of Lava known as "Plates". I think we all know that. So what happens if a plate gets unbalanced it tips and dips. In my mind this is what is occuring now. This is why often when one event occures it puts pressure somewhere else. This happens often when earthquakes happen. When an Earthquake occurs 2 plates are rubbing and get stucks and then frees itself causing an earthquake. Plates either flow over/under or side to side. Just my take. Read just enough to get me in trouble.....LOL
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
Quoting TampaSpin:


Yes the Width....do use anymore than 650 in Width when doing post.
I use width="90%" and then the image is just a wee bit smaller than the blog entry window. At least it works on my Firefox. For instance this image width full size is 2048px, but using width="90%" it looks like this


Does it look right to you with your browser???

Or 50% of blog window
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Quoting TampaSpin:


Yes the Width....do not use anymore than 650 in Width when doing post.


You do know that if you use Firefox that everything too large is resized for you, right? IE sux.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
Quoting KEHCharleston:

Tampa, what do you mean when you say 'stretching the blog'?? Are you talking about the width of the blog?


Hide 152 and you don't have to scroll to view the text on the rest. If a pic is bigger than the typical screen, it extends the screen, making you have to scroll to the right to see all of the info. Now I really got to go, be well all.
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8186
Quoting KEHCharleston:

Tampa, what do you mean when you say 'stretching the blog'?? Are you talking about the width of the blog?


Yes the Width....do not use anymore than 650 in Width when doing post.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
Quoting TampaSpin:
Post 152 and 172 is stretching the blog ..LOL

Tampa, what do you mean when you say 'stretching the blog'?? Are you talking about the width of the blog?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
TampaSpin, you need to give us some guidance --- Stuff is still kickin around the ring. Gotta go --

Magnitude Location Time
4.8 Tonga region 1 hour ago Map
4.9 South of the Fiji Islands 3 hours ago Map
5.2 Tonga region 5 hours ago Map

earthquake.usgs.gov
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8186
Quoting TampaSpin:
Post 152 and 172 is stretching the blog ..LOL

!
Look out! the police are back. :)
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8186
Quoting KoritheMan:
Call me crazy, but I also plan to chase hurricanes one of these days.


I have had the fortune of knowing several individuals that have taken such risks. 50% of them still exist. Make sure before you go that you know what you are getting into. There is no turning back after you reach the point of no return. That is the unfortunate fact that I know first hand. L8R
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8186
Post 152 and 172 is stretching the blog ..LOL
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
Call me crazy, but I also plan to chase hurricanes one of these days.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 583 Comments: 20821
176. Ossqss Second that
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting atmoaggie:
4000 MUCAPE at Lake Charles at 7 pm CDT? Dang. CIN = 0...

:-(



That LI is pretty impressive too at -6. Steep mid level lapse rates. Good level of free convection and lifted condensation level.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CycloneOz:


Thank you! :) Hunting has become a passion to me, and this year, should the opportunity arise, I plan on taking this venture to a whole new level.

The "Experience the Preparation for Hunting Hurricanes" taping events are starting to be spread by word of mouth here in Los Alamos to the point where I'll have an audience both at the community pool and at the fire house when I test my safety equipment.

You folks here at wunderground are in for a real treat on June 1st. If all goes as planned, this video will not only be extremely interesting...but hilarious as well.

I appreciate you and all my fans. I'm going to continue to work very hard to present these events to you in a manner where you can see, hear...and in a way...feel what it's really like to be in the middle of things.


Mr. Oz, I cannot speak for anyone but myself.

I would never condone your hurricane activities. They are dangerous and you risk too much with respect to your family by virtue of your actions. Albeit this may mean little to you, ensure you calculate your risks and never challenge the water, no one wins that battle. I am not a fan, just an onlooker. Keep that in perspective when you take your life into your own hands and remember those who count on you day to day. This is not Hollywood.

I would hope someone among us would second that motion. e
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8186
Quoting HIEXPRESS:
156. atmoaggie
We get them too. It can make the fire do interesting things.
Video

From the satellite loop on that page you linked, I suspect that the fire itself had something to do with breaking the cap. Not that I thought about that before, but it makes sense.

You live near there? I was in Milton for a trial 2 weeks ago. Neat little downtown...

EDIT: OK, now that I read the details, SPC says the airmass was strongly capped and fire did cause the thunderstorm.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
Quoting HIEXPRESS:
156. atmoaggie
We get them too. It can make the fire do interesting things.
Video


That's interesting.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
156. atmoaggie
We get them too. It can make the fire do interesting things.
Video
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
4000 MUCAPE at Lake Charles at 7 pm CDT? Dang. CIN = 0...

:-(

Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
Turn on dat dere wedder radio, cher.

Tornado Watch 66 is in effect until 300 am CDT for the
following locations


La
. Louisiana parishes included are

Acadia Allen Ascension
Assumption Avoyelles Beauregard
Calcasieu Cameron Catahoula
Concordia East Baton Rouge East Carroll
East Feliciana Evangeline Franklin
Iberia Iberville Jefferson Davis
Lafayette Livingston Madison
Morehouse Pointe Coupee Richland
St. Helena St. James St. John The Baptist
St. Landry St. Martin St. Mary
St. Tammany Tangipahoa Tensas
Vermilion Washington West Baton Rouge
West Carroll West Feliciana
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
Magnitude Location Time
4.9 South of the Fiji Islands 1 hour ago Map
5.2 Tonga region 4 hours ago Map
6.0 New Britain region, Papua New Guinea Yesterday Map

earthquake.usgs.gov
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8186
169. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Fiji Meteorological Services

Gale Warning
==============
At 0:00 AM UTC, Tropical Depression, Former TC Jasper (1001 hPa) located at 22.3S 164.3E is reported as moving slowly. Expected east to southeast winds of 30-40 knots within 60 to 300 NM of the center in the sector southeast through south to west.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 51 Comments: 45583
168. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Seychelles Meteorological Services
Tropical Cyclone Warning Number EIGHT
FORTE TEMPETE TROPICAL IZILDA
4:00 AM Réunion March 26 2009
================================

At 0:00 AM UTC, Severe Tropical Storm Izilda [974 hPa] located at 23.6S 43.0E has 10 minute sustained winds of 60 knots with gusts of 85 knots. The storm is reported as moving east at 3 knots

Dvorak Intensity: T4.0

Storm Force Winds
================
20 NM radius from the center

Gale Force Winds
===============
60 NM radius of the center extending up to 90 NM in the southwestern quadrant

Near Gale Force Winds
===================
90 NM radius of the center, extending up to 150 NM in the southwestern quadrant

Forecast and Intensity
=======================
12 HRS: 23.5S 42.5E - 55 knots (Forte Tempéte Tropicale)
24 HRS: 23.2S 41.9E - 50 knots (Forte Tempéte Tropicale)
48 HRS: 22.4S 40.1E - 40 knots (Tempéte Tropicale Moderée)
72 HRS: 22.2S 38.7E - 30 knots (DEPRESSION Tropicale)

Additional Information
====================
Northwesterly vertical wind shear has stopped development of the system, the eye has disappeared on the satellite imagery. A weak tilt is visible on microwave data (CF TRMM 1818z). Izilda has clearly slowed down easward and is expected to recurve soon west-northwest under the steering influence of the subtropical high pressures rebuilding in its southwest and becoming the main steering flow.

Upper level jet (well showed on infrared METEOSAT-7 imagery) existing in the west and in the south of the system is expected to be a limitating factor as the system recurves west-northwest, then the strengthening northerly wind shear (beyond 24 hours to 36 hours) should weaken this system if small size.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 51 Comments: 45583
College of DuPage Meteorology
Severe Weather and Flash Flood Warnings


Note: This page will reload every 2 minutes. Warnings are listed with the most recent first.


wunderground Interactive Tornado Map
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128639
924
WFUS54 KHGX 260040
TORHGX
TXC185-339-407-471-260130-
/O.NEW.KHGX.TO.W.0001.090326T0040Z-090326T0130Z/

BULLETIN - EAS ACTIVATION REQUESTED
TORNADO WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE HOUSTON/GALVESTON TX
740 PM CDT WED MAR 25 2009

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN LEAGUE CITY HAS ISSUED A

* TORNADO WARNING FOR...
SOUTHEASTERN GRIMES COUNTY IN SOUTHEAST TEXAS...
MONTGOMERY COUNTY IN SOUTHEAST TEXAS...
SOUTHWESTERN SAN JACINTO COUNTY IN SOUTHEAST TEXAS...
SOUTHEASTERN WALKER COUNTY IN SOUTHEAST TEXAS...

* UNTIL 830 PM CDT

* AT 738 PM CDT...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DOPPLER RADAR INDICATED
A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM CAPABLE OF PRODUCING A TORNADO. THIS
TORNADO WAS LOCATED NEAR MONTGOMERY... MOVING EAST AT 40 MPH.

* LOCATIONS IN THE TORDANO WARNING INCLUDE BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO
RICHARDS...LAKE CONROE DAM...HUNTSVILLE STATE PARK...DOBBIN...
DACUS...WOODLOCH...WOODBRANCH...WILLIS...SHENANDOAH...PINEHURST...
PANORAMA VILLAGE...NEW WAVERLY...MAGNOLIA...CUT AND SHOOT AND
CONROE.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

TORNADOES AT NIGHT ARE ESPECIALLY DANGEROUS. DO NOT WAIT UNTIL YOU
SEE OR HEAR A TORNADO - TAKE COVER NOW!
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128639
Quoting WarEagle8:


DUDE, IKE coverage is awesome! I did not sleep much during IKE even though I am in the Tampa area.....we have relatives in Spring/The Woodlands, TX.

Keep up the great work....love your 'reaper' music, too.


Thank you! :) Hunting has become a passion to me, and this year, should the opportunity arise, I plan on taking this venture to a whole new level.

The "Experience the Preparation for Hunting Hurricanes" taping events are starting to be spread by word of mouth here in Los Alamos to the point where I'll have an audience both at the community pool and at the fire house when I test my safety equipment.

You folks here at wunderground are in for a real treat on June 1st. If all goes as planned, this video will not only be extremely interesting...but hilarious as well.

I appreciate you and all my fans. I'm going to continue to work very hard to present these events to you in a manner where you can see, hear...and in a way...feel what it's really like to be in the middle of things.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Still kickin in Tonga and the other side of the ring of fire in CA.... Redoubt might be listening again.

Magnitude Location Time
5.2 Tonga region 1 hour ago Map
5.2 Tonga region 16 hours ago Map
6.0 New Britain region, Papua New Guinea 23 hours ago


Quakes shake California's southeastern desert
2 hours ago

BOMBAY BEACH, Calif. (AP) %u2014 Dozens of small earthquakes are shaking the desert of southeastern California, the day after a moderate temblor struck on the edge of the Salton Sea.

The largest of Wednesday's earthquakes was a magnitude-3.7 recorded at 12:59 p.m. Earlier in the day, swarms of smaller ones shook the sparsely populated area 90 miles east of San Diego. A magnitude-3.5 quake struck shortly before 1 a.m.

Tuesday's magnitude-4.8 quake struck before dawn near the small town of Bombay Beach.

There have been no reports of damage or injury from any of the quakes.

Scientists are closely watching the increased earthquake activity because it is near a section of the San Andreas Fault that has not broken loose in more than 300 years.

L8Ron

Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8186
Where did the blog stretching graphic police go? He was here earlier today :>)
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8186
Flash Flood Watch, Coastal Flood Statement

Statement as of 3:51 PM CDT on March 25, 2009

... Flash Flood Watch in effect through Saturday morning...

The National Weather Service in New Orleans has issued a

* Flash Flood Watch for portions of southeast Louisiana and
southern Mississippi... including the following areas... in
southeast Louisiana... Ascension... Assumption... East Baton
Rouge... East Feliciana... Iberville... Livingston... lower
Jefferson... lower Lafourche... lower Plaquemines... lower St.
Bernard... lower Terrebonne... Orleans... Pointe Coupee... St.
Charles... St. Helena... St. James... St. John The Baptist... St.
Tammany... Tangipahoa... upper Jefferson... upper Lafourche...
upper Plaquemines... upper St. Bernard... upper Terrebonne...
Washington... West Baton Rouge and West Feliciana. In southern
Mississippi... Amite... Hancock... Harrison... Jackson... Pearl
River... Pike... Walthall and Wilkinson.

* Through Saturday morning

* several rounds of thunderstorms are expected tonight through
Friday night. Each round of thunderstorms will be capable of
producing one to three inches of rain. With a stationary front
in place... several thunderstorms may move over an area in a few
hours. While the last few weeks have been rather dry... this
amount of rain will certainly be capable of producing flooding.

Precautionary/preparedness actions...

A Flash Flood Watch means that conditions may develop that lead
to flash flooding. Flash flooding is a very dangerous situation.

You should monitor later forecasts and be prepared to take action
should flash flood warnings be issued.


343 PM CDT Wed Mar 25 2009

... Higher than normal tides will continue through Friday evening...

Another surface low is expected to deepen over the Southern Plains
late tonight through Thursday. This low will track east and drag a
cold front into the area Friday. As a result... strong south to
southeast winds of 15 to 30 mph will persist over the coastal
sections. Astronomical high tide is expected Thursday morning
and Friday late morning. Both features will result in tide levels
around 1 to 2 feet above normal high tide Thursday morning and 2
feet above normal high tide Friday morning. A coastal Flood Watch
may be required Friday morning.

All persons in the coastal area should pay close attention to the
tide levels... be prepared to take immediate action to protect life
and property... and should be ready to move to higher ground.
Remain alert and keep listening to your radio... television... or
NOAA Weather Radio for updates... watches or warnings.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128639


Texas insurers suffer record losses, officials seek climate answers

Hurricanes clobbered Texas insurers last year, draining reserve accounts and igniting a full-blown debate in the Legislature about the state's ability to address rising risks related to climate change.

Two storms besieged the state's curved coastline, including one of the costliest in Texas history, Hurricane Ike. That sent damage claims soaring and resulted in $6.6 billion in losses for state insurers, which had collected record-high premium revenue totaling $5.17 billion last year, according to new data released by the Texas Department of Insurance.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128639
I get the sense that Izilda will be a 2nd Fanelle on the other coast
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Has anyone been following the flooding situation in North Dakota? They are expecting the waters to reach record levels there including in cities such as Fargo and Bismark.
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Sounds helpful-
26 Mar 2009, 0032 hrs IST, Jonathan Leake, Sunday Times, London
Text:
A European satellite is to show scientists the inner workings of Earth, from the movements of ocean currents to the location of oil
deposits.

Its data will enable scientists to detect the flows of molten rock that underlie the movements of tectonic plates and cause earthquakes. The Goce probe, launched last week, will measure tiny anomalies in Earth’s gravity, caused by anything from mountain ranges to subterranean lava flows or ocean trenches.

Rune Floberghagen, Goce mission manager, said: “Imagine a snowflake, which weighs a fraction of a gram, falling onto the deck of a supertanker. The impact the supertanker experiences from that snowflake is comparable to the sensitivity of our instrument.”

Scientists have long known that the Earth’s gravity varies all over its surface — and that measuring those changes could give insights into the planet’s inner workings.

However, designing an instrument capable of measuring them, which would also survive the rigours of blast-off, has until now proved impossible.

This weekend, Goce, short for Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer, was declared fully operational. “Goce will yield details of the Earth’s gravity field to an accuracy and resolution that is simply unobtainable by existing terrestrial and space techniques,” said Philip Moore of Newcastle University, who specialises in gravity research.

For geologists, perhaps the most exciting prospect is of being able to “peer” deep below the Earth’s crust. It will exploit the fact that minerals in the crust vary in density and hence in the amount of gravity they generate. It means that oil and mineral deposits or ground-water reservoirs will all leave their own subtle signature on the Earth’s gravitational field.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2009-03-25 10:51:02
A small explosive event occurred at 10:17 AKDT this morning. The plume from this event was not detected by radar, indicating that it did not rise above approximately 12,000 ft asl or contained very little ash. This explosion triggered a flowage event on the north flank of the volcano as indicated by seismicity.

This event was similar to or smaller than the explosion that occurred this morning at 5:12 AKDT.
Still burping... :)
Member Since: December 26, 2006 Posts: 278 Comments: 1251
This is neat...

"The same process that creates a mesocyclone in a tornadic thunderstorm also creates a volcanic mesocyclone in a strong volcanic plume, Chakraborty said. "What happens in tornadic thunderstorms is analogous to what happens in strong volcanic plumes."

A strong volcanic plume consists of a vertical column of hot gases and dust topped with a horizontal "umbrella." A volcanic mesocyclone sets the entire plume rotating about its axis. The mesocyclone spawns waterspouts or dust devils, and groups the electric charges in the plume to form a sheath of lightning, as was so prominently displayed in the eruption of Mount Chaiten.

The rotation of strong volcanic plumes may be verified by observations from space, the scientists report. On June 15, 1991, the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines was recorded by a satellite snapping hourly images. The images show that the edge of Pinatubo's umbrella was rotating about its center, consistent with the presence of a volcanic mesocyclone.

The images also show that after rotating for a while, the umbrella lost axial symmetry and became lobate in plan view. This loss of axial symmetry is another effect of the rotation, which destabilizes the edge of the umbrella and makes it lobate, the scientists report.

Lobate umbrellas have been found in satellite images of other volcanoes, including Mount Manam in Papua New Guinea, Mount Reventador in Ecuador and Mount Okmok in the Aleutian Islands."

And more at: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-03/uoia-rik032309.php
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
155. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
so much for Jasper to become a severe tropical cyclone that was forecasted by Bureau of Meteorology on advisory.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 51 Comments: 45583
154. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Gale Warning
===============
At 18:00 PM UTC, Tropical Depression, Former Jasper [1001 hPa] located at 21.3S 161.8E has 10 minute sustained winds of 30-35 knots within 60 to 150 NM of the center in the southern semi-circle. The depression is reported as moving west at 7 knots.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 51 Comments: 45583
153. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Gale Warning
===============
At 9:00 AM UTC, Tropical Depression, Former Jasper [1000 hPa] located at 21.3S 163.7E has 10 minute sustained winds of 35 knots within 60 to 150 NM of the center in the southern semi-circle. The depression is reported as moving west-northwest at 3 knots.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 51 Comments: 45583
152. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 51 Comments: 45583
Izilda does not appear to be a major threat. The biggest concern will be flooding rains.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH NUMBER 62
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
1125 AM CDT WED MAR 25 2009

THE NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED A
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH FOR PORTIONS OF

PARTS OF CENTRAL AND NORTH TEXAS

EFFECTIVE THIS WEDNESDAY MORNING AND EVENING FROM 1125 AM UNTIL
600 PM CDT.

HAIL TO 2.5 INCHES IN DIAMETER...THUNDERSTORM WIND GUSTS TO 70
MPH...AND DANGEROUS LIGHTNING ARE POSSIBLE IN THESE AREAS.

THE SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH AREA IS APPROXIMATELY ALONG AND 70
STATUTE MILES NORTH AND SOUTH OF A LINE FROM 25 MILES NORTH
NORTHWEST OF SAN ANGELO TEXAS TO 40 MILES NORTHEAST OF CORSICANA
TEXAS. FOR A COMPLETE DEPICTION OF THE WATCH SEE THE ASSOCIATED
WATCH OUTLINE UPDATE (WOUS64 KWNS WOU2).

REMEMBER...A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH MEANS CONDITIONS ARE
FAVORABLE FOR SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS IN AND CLOSE TO THE WATCH
AREA. PERSONS IN THESE AREAS SHOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR
THREATENING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND LISTEN FOR LATER STATEMENTS
AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS. SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS CAN AND OCCASIONALLY
DO PRODUCE TORNADOES.

DISCUSSION...ELEVATED THUNDERSTORMS WILL CONTINUE TO INCREASE IN
COVERAGE AND INTENSITY ACROSS CENTRAL AND N TX OVER THE NEXT FEW
HOURS...AS ISENTROPIC LIFT STRENGTHENS ATOP THE LOW-LEVEL FRONTAL
SURFACE IN RESPONSE TO THE APPROACHING MID-LEVEL SHORT-WAVE TROUGH.
WITH 50 TO 60 KT MID-LEVEL WSWLYS ATOP VEERING LOW-LEVEL
FLOW...SHEAR WILL SUPPORT ROTATING/SUPERCELL STORMS. WHILE AN
ISOLATED DAMAGING WIND GUST WILL BE POSSIBLE -- PARTICULARLY OVER
SRN PORTIONS OF THE WATCH -- GIVEN POTENTIAL FOR SOME DOWNDRAFT
ENHANCEMENT DUE TO SUB-CLOUD EVAPORATIVE COOLING...PRIMARY THREAT
WILL BE LARGE HAIL.

Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 583 Comments: 20821
149. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Seychelles Meteorological Services
Tropical Cyclone Warning Number SEVEN
FORTE TEMPETE TROPICAL IZILDA
22:00 PM Réunion March 25 2009
================================

At 18:00 PM UTC, Severe Tropical Storm Izilda [978 hPa] located at 23.7S 42.5E has 10 minute sustained winds of 55 knots with gusts of 80 knots. The storm is reported as quasi-stationary.

Dvorak Intensity: T4.0

Storm Force Winds
================
20 NM radius from the center

Gale Force Winds
===============
50 NM radius of the center

Near Gale Force Winds
===================
70 NM radius of the center, extending up to 120 NM in the northern semi-circle and up to 200 NM in the southwestern quadrant

Forecast and Intensity
=======================
12 HRS: 23.8S 42.4E - 65 knots (CYCLONE Tropical)
24 HRS: 23.7S 42.4E - 60 knots (Forte Tempéte Tropicale)
48 HRS: 22.9S 40.6E - 50 knots (Forte Tempéte Tropicale)
72 HRS: 22.4S 38.6E - 40 knots (Tempéte Tropicale Moderée)

Additional Information
=====================
Convection has clearly improved around the eye, as the system goes on intensifying (CF microwave imagery F17 at 1452z). The eye remains quite irregular and a weak constraint is visible on satellite imagery. Izilda has clearly slowed down and is expected to become stationary within the next 24 hours before recurving west-northwestwards under the steering influence of the subtropical high pressures rebuilding in its southwest. This subtropcial ridge is expected to become the main steering flow beyond 36 hours. System is also expected to recurve west-northwestwards upper level jet (well showed on infrared METEOSAT-7 imagery) existig in the west and in the south of the system expected to keep improving the upper level poleward divergence but could become a limiting factor as the system recurves west-northwestward linked to a strengthening wind shear. Izilda could before reach minimal tropical cyclone stage.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 51 Comments: 45583

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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