Record -50°F confirmed for Maine; is this inconsistent with global warming?

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:41 PM GMT on February 13, 2009

Share this Blog
5
+

The lowest temperature ever recorded in the state of Maine, a -50°F reading taken on January 16, has been confirmed as real, according to a press release issued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Weather Service this week. The new record occurred at 7:15 a.m. Jan. 16 at a remote river gauge in Big Black River (see USGS image at right), about four miles from the Canadian border. It ties the record set in 1933 for New England's lowest temperature, set at Bloomfield, Vermont. The old Maine record was -48°F, set in 1925 at Van Buren. All-time state records are difficult to break. The last time a state record low was set occurred January 5, 1999, when Congerville, Illinois recorded -36°F. Only one state record high temperature has been set in the past the decade--the 120°F temperature measured in Usta, South Dakota on July 15, 2006.

All-time record lows are inconsistent with global warming, right?
An impressive cold wave hit the northern and eastern portions of the U.S. January 11-18, with 17 states reporting record daily lows. In addition to the coldest temperature ever measured in Maine, one station, Waterloo, Iowa, tied its 1962 record for all-time coldest temperature, when the mercury hit -34°F on January 16. If global warming is occurring, we should not expect to see very many all-time city or state records being set. The nation's January-December average temperature has increased at a rate of 0.12°F per decade since 1895, and at a faster rate of 0.41°F per decade during the last 50 years. This 2°F rise in temperature has undoubtedly allowed more high temperature than low temperature records to be broken. However, this is a low enough amount of warming that there should still be a few cold temperature records being set, since the weather is so highly variable.

The statistics support this position. The Waterloo, Iowa mark was only the second time this decade that an all-time record cold temperature has been set at a major U.S. city. The cities I consider are the 303 cities author Chris Burt tracks in his excellent Extreme Weather book. The cites chosen were selected based primarily on their length of weather records (all the records go back to at least 1948, with most going back to the 1800s), and include all the largest cities in the U.S. The only other all-time coldest temperature record set at these cities this decade was the -44°F recorded in Grand Forks, North Dakota on 1/30/2004. By contrast, 49 all-time high temperature marks have been set this decade (Figure 1).

Perhaps a better judge of the impact of global warming on extreme temperatures, though, is to look at record warmest and coldest months. Month-long records are more reflective of the climate than an extreme event lasting just a few days. No all-time coldest month records were at any U.S. cities during January 2009, and it was not even close. Despite the cold blast of Jan. 11-18, the month of January finished out above average in temperature for the lower 48 states. So far this decade, no U.S. major city has set an all-time coldest month record. The last time a coldest month record was set occurred in January, 1994 when Caribou Maine and Bayfield, Wisconsin recorded their coldest month. By contrast, there have been 61 all-time warmest month records set in those same 303 cities between 2000 and 2008 (Figure 1). The summer of 2007 alone saw 42 all-time high (or warmest month ever) records. Just one record was set in the summer of 2008.


Figure 1. Minimum and maximum temperatures records for the U.S. for 303 major stations. The image has been updated through January 2009 to include the one record low set that month. The original version of this image was for 2007, and I modified it to update it for four changes made in the 2008 data. The numbers for the decade of the 2000s are correct, but there are four (out of 606) records that need to be subtracted off some of the earlier decades. Note the the 1930s were the most extreme decade for total number of records set, but the 1920s were the least extreme. U.S. weather has a high degree of variability from decade to decade. Image credit: Chris Burt, Extreme Weather.

Are the pattern of U.S. temperature records due to the Urban Heat Island effect?
There have been 110 all-time high temperature or all-time warmest month records set at the 303 major U.S. cities this decade, and only two such low temperature records set. Is this disparity due to global warming, or the Urban Heat Island effect? The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect occurs when development of former natural areas into pavement and buildings allows more heat to be trapped in cities, particularly at night. During the day, the UHI effect often leads to a slight cooling, since it can increase the amount of turbulence, allowing cooler air to get mixed down to the surface. For example, Moreno-Garcia (1994) found that Barcelona, Spain was 0.2°C cooler for daily maxima and 2.9°C warmer for minima than a nearby rural station.

However, temperature records are typically taken in parks and airports removed from the main heat-trapping areas of cities, and are not as strongly affected as one might expect. There are several reasons for this. One is that when tall buildings are present, they tend to block the view to the sky, meaning that not as much heat can escape upwards. In addition, the presence of moist vegetation keeps the atmosphere moister in park-like areas (which include the grassy fields near airports where temperature measurements are taken). This extra moisture helps cool the atmosphere on a local scale of tens of meters, due to latent heat effects (the energy required to convert liquid water to water vapor). Peterson (2003) found that "Contrary to generally accepted wisdom, no statistically significant impact of urbanization could be found in annual temperatures." The study used satellite-based night-light detection to identify urban areas. Recent research by Spronken-Smith and Oke (1998) concluded that there was a marked park cool island effect within the Urban Heat Island. They found that parks in typical cities in the U.S. have temperatures 1 - 2°C cooler than the surrounding city--and sometimes more than 5°C cooler. While the Urban Heat Island effect probably has contributed to some of the reduction in record low temperatures in the U.S. in the past decade, research by Parker (2004, 2006) and Peterson (2003) theorizes that Urban Heat Island effect is a factor ten or more less important than rising temperatures due to global warming.

Is the Urban Heat Island effect partially responsible for global warming?
Global warming is affecting the entire Earth, including rural areas far from cities, and the 70% of the world covered by ocean. Thus, the Urban Heat Island effect--if not corrected for--can cause only a small impact on the global temperature figures. Since the Urban Heat Island is corrected for, the impact on the observed global warming signal should be negligible. For instance, NASA uses satellite-derived night light observations to classify stations as rural and urban and corrects the urban stations so that they match the trends from the rural stations before gridding the data. Other techniques (such as correcting for population growth) have also been used. Despite these corrections, and the fact that the Urban Heat Island effect impacts only a relatively small portion of the globe, global warming skeptics have persistently used the Urban Heat Island effect to attack the validity of global warming. There are no published peer-reviewed scientific studies that support these attacks.

References
Parker, D.E., 2004, "Large-Scale Warming is not Urban", Nature 432, 290, doi:10.1038/432290a, 2004.

Parker, D.E., 2006, "A Demonstration that Large-Scale Warming is not Urban", J. Climate 19, pp2882-2986, 2006.

Peterson, T.C., "Assessment of urban versus rural in situ surface temperatures in the contiguous United States: No difference found", Journal of Climate, 16, 2941-2959, 2003.

Spronken-Smith, R. A., and T. R. Oke, 1998: "The thermal regime of urban parks in two cities with different summer climates. Int. J. Remote Sens., 19, 20852104.

The surface temperature record and the urban heat island, realclimate.org post, 2004.

My next post will be sometime Tue-Thu.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 389 - 339

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19Blog Index

Quoting Patrap:
In 6-10 months you'll have a Final report to read about what occurred to the Tragic Flight of that DASH-8.

All else is speculation as to the cause.

The NTSB page Link


Pat you are correct. Maybe i am in error of jumping the gun and apologize to those that can't speak out and too their families.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
381 tampa
Certainly sounds like a stall and recovery attempt.
I recall from the first NTSB breifing Chealander said that somewhere in the chain of events they pulled the flaps back up and were retracting the landing gear. And that the events you described occured almost immediatley after the flap were first lowered.
Can't fathom the feeling. God rest their souls.
Member Since: September 11, 2008 Posts: 9 Comments: 10084
In 6-10 months you'll have a Final report to read about what occurred to the Tragic Flight of that DASH-8.

All else is speculation as to the cause.

The NTSB page Link
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128259
This was just released.....

Plane that crashed near Buffalo was on autopilot
Published - Feb 15 2009 08:24PM EST

By LARRY NEUMEISTER - Associated Press Writer

The commuter plane that crashed near Buffalo was on autopilot until just before it went down in icy weather, indicating that the pilot may have ignored federal safety recommendations and violated the airline's own policy for flying in such conditions, an investigator said Sunday.

Federal guidelines and the airline's own instructions suggest a pilot should not engage the autopilot when flying through ice. If the ice is severe, the company that operated Continental Flight 3407 requires pilots to shut off the autopilot.

"You may be able in a manual mode to sense something sooner than the autopilot can sense it," said Steve Chealander of the National Transportation Safety Board, which also recommends that pilots disengage the autopilot in icy conditions.

Automatic safety devices returned the aircraft to manual control just before it fell from the sky, Chealander said.

During a Sunday briefing, Chealander described the flight's frantic last moments, which included a steep drop and rollercoaster-like pitching and rolling.

Chealander said information from the plane's flight data recorder indicates that the plane pitched up at an angle of 31 degrees, then pitched down at 45 degrees.

The plane rolled to the left at 46 degrees, then snapped back to the right at 105 degrees _ 15 degrees beyond vertical.

Radar data shows Flight 3407 fell from 1,800 feet above sea level to 1,000 feet in five seconds, he said. Passengers and crew would have experienced G-forces up to twice as strong as on the ground.

The plane crashed belly first onto a house Thursday night, killing all 49 people on board and one person on the ground.

Just before they went down in a suburban neighborhood near the Buffalo airport, the pilots discussed "significant" ice buildup on their wings and windshield. Other aircraft in the area told air traffic controllers they also experienced icing around the same time.
The Dash 8 Q400 plane operated by Colgan Air was equipped with a "stick shaker" mechanism that rattles the yoke to warn the pilot if the plane is about to lose aerodynamic lift, a condition called a stall.

When the stick shaker engaged, it would have automatically turned off the autopilot, Chealander said.

Before that, the pilot switched on an anti-stall device that increases the speed of the plane by 20 knots and gives a pilot more margin to recover from a stall if it occurs.

Chealander said the plane's deicing system was turned on 11 minutes after it took off from Newark, N.J., and stayed on for the entire flight. Indicator lights showed the system appeared to be working.

He said the pilot was being "very conservative" by turning it on so soon.

Investigators who examined both engines said they appeared to be running normally at the time of the crash, too.

In a December safety alert issued by the NTSB, the agency said pilots in icy conditions should turn off or limit the use of the autopilot to better "feel" changes in the handling qualities of the airplane.

Still, Chealander was careful not to criticize the pilot.

"Everything that should have been done was done so we keep looking," he said. "We keep looking, trying to find out why this happened."

Colgan Air operates a fleet of 51 regional turboprops for Continental Connection, United Express and US Airways Express.
Chealander said Colgan, like most airlines, had begun following NTSB recommendations that pilots use deicing systems as soon as they enter conditions that might lead to icing.

Federal Aviation Administration spokeswoman Laura Brown said the agency advises pilots to disengage the autopilot when ice is accumulating, but the guidance is not mandatory.

She also said some planes are certified to be flown on autopilot in icing conditions because doing so "may actually keep the aircraft at a steadier speed and altitude than a pilot could flying it manually."

Brown said the agency considered making the guidance mandatory, but others in the aviation community argued against it, citing the capabilities of such advanced planes.

She did not know if the 74-seat Q400 Bombardier aircraft that crashed Thursday was certified to be on autopilot during icing conditions.

By Sunday, authorities had recovered the remains of at least 15 people from the wreckage as crews raced to finish their work before a storm arrives later in the week.

Recovery crews could need as much as four days to remove the remains from the site. Chealander described the efforts as an "excavation."

"Keep in mind, there's an airplane that fell on top of a house, and they're now intermingled," he said.

DNA and dental records will be used to identify the remains, he said.

"Whether we can identify everybody or not remains to be seen, but it will be weeks, the identification process," Erie County Health Commissioner Anthony Billittier said.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
Quoting TampaSpin:
This is not a MEDIA Report......

During a Sunday briefing, Chealander described the flight's frantic last moments, which included a steep drop and rollercoaster-like pitching and rolling.

Chealander said information from the plane's flight data recorder indicates that the plane pitched up at an angle of 31 degrees, then pitched down at 45 degrees.

The plane rolled to the left at 46 degrees, then snapped back to the right at 105 degrees _ 15 degrees beyond vertical.

Radar data shows Flight 3407 fell from 1,800 feet above sea level to 1,000 feet in five seconds, he said. Passengers and crew would have experienced G-forces up to twice as strong as on the ground.

The plane crashed belly first onto a house!


If the Pilot was wrong and made a mistake, hopefully others learn from it. I don't see anyone but, say PILOT ERROR. Folks, i have sympathy to all suffering but, this was not done by the media....OK!


Tampa, sorry my comment was not directed at you or your sources...that post sounds like a major systems failure, but I don't have the expertise or info to comment on it...same for most of us here. Sympathy to the families/friends of those involved...and I do agree, no matter what the final verdict, something to be learned.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting futuremet:
Hey CCHS

I am interested on creating a real website. I have already made several attempts, but were not very successful. The primary problem is that no one (excluding WU members) visit my website. Perhaps its is the lack of Search Engine Optimization (SEO).


You've just asked the million dollar question that web designers all over the world are asking.
Google says mega tags don't work anymore and offers advice on how to work your way up on the list and even play Yahoo into the mix.
Let me look through my "stuff" and see if I can find the path you're looking for.
I'll WUmail you when I do.
Member Since: September 11, 2008 Posts: 9 Comments: 10084
383. DDR
Quoting pottery:
The Met. Office said on Friday, that we have already passed the "average" rainfall for Feb.!!

I read it as well,this year tops them all.look at the blob now!!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:
Baha, zip 33064.
Not sure where that is...
Yeah, it's the same area, on the coast east of Pompano Beach. I stayed in that area after Christmas (about 7-8 weeks ago?). I'll bet it was a bit cooler there at nights than in Trini. . . lol
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
This is not a MEDIA Report......

During a Sunday briefing, Chealander described the flight's frantic last moments, which included a steep drop and rollercoaster-like pitching and rolling.

Chealander said information from the plane's flight data recorder indicates that the plane pitched up at an angle of 31 degrees, then pitched down at 45 degrees.

The plane rolled to the left at 46 degrees, then snapped back to the right at 105 degrees _ 15 degrees beyond vertical.

Radar data shows Flight 3407 fell from 1,800 feet above sea level to 1,000 feet in five seconds, he said. Passengers and crew would have experienced G-forces up to twice as strong as on the ground.

The plane crashed belly first onto a house!


If the Pilot was wrong and made a mistake, hopefully others learn from it. I don't see anyway but, say PILOT ERROR. Folks, i have sympathy to all suffering but, this was not done by the media....OK!
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
The Met. Office said on Friday, that we have already passed the "average" rainfall for Feb.!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Thanks Keeper.
Looking at some other images too. Some heavy rains in there.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
378. DDR
yes,i think la nina has a play in this,i've recorded 6.25 inches for the month so far.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Skyepony:
"Who killed the electric car" Rob wins the prize!

Shep~ You should go rent it.. & i will:)
LMAO
Nah. Suburban and flats boat retrofit....I just want the battery ;>)
Member Since: September 11, 2008 Posts: 9 Comments: 10084
Hi DDR. Long time.
Yeah, very wet.
Even raining in Antigua.!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MissNadia:
366
Nobody on this blog knows what happened on that aircraft...NOBODY


You are correct, of course. Have to be careful about making judgements based on what is reported in the media...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:


that one to your east is strong see the latest above may cross ne section of the area
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53809
Baha, zip 33064.
Not sure where that is...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
372. DDR
Quoting pottery:
An area of heavy rain to the east of me, looks to be moving north before it gets here. The one building to the south looks to be coming this way by midnight. This from the sat. loops.
That's when I have to drive to the airport to meet my daughter, who is returning from Fla., Attended a wedding, of my God Daughter, that I was not able to attend. Anyone know Lighthouse Point ?

Hi pottery,its been a while,anyway lots of rain today,as well as the past two weeks,1 inch today,and it does look like more is coming.Strange weather,i have never seen this much rain in feb. before.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
TS, I agree right now the news is speculative. It's being reported, but since NTSB hasn't confirmed anything yet, I'd be cautious about STATING pilot error.

Wonder when the final report will come out.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Rob, I saw that. Mildew for sale ?? I will tell the wife. We will get rich.....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Keeper. I think the east one will pass north. The south one seems more likely. Do you agree ??
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:
An area of heavy rain to the east of me, looks to be moving north before it gets here. The one building to the south looks to be coming this way by midnight. This from the sat. loops.
That's when I have to drive to the airport to meet my daughter, who is returning from Fla., Attended a wedding, of my God Daughter, that I was not able to attend. Anyone know Lighthouse Point ?
As in the Boca Raton area? Hillsboro Inlet area?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
366
Nobody on this blog knows what happened on that aircraft...NOBODY
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TampaSpin:
theshepherd i do believe you did not think it would be Pilot error....It's about as bad as Pilot error can get.....

Thanks Tampa.
I should have listened to you in the first place. My bad. I was listening to an X Navy pilot.
Is the investigation complete? Is that their Official conclusion?
Member Since: September 11, 2008 Posts: 9 Comments: 10084
hmmmm....

Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
Quoting pottery:
True, Futuremet.
Warm all year, and its supposed to be hot and dry now. No sign of that...........
This is mildew weather !
's what I thought. It's been rainier than usual here, too, but we've not been as bad as what u described. And I'm with fut on the abnormal cold in parts between 25 and 30N. . . .
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Dean brought rain. Ivan brought wind, with heavy rain that caused deaths in Tobago. And major landslides here.
We get that from time to time.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:
True, Futuremet.
Warm all year, and its supposed to be hot and dry now. No sign of that...........
This is mildew weather !


Pottery, got to SWMBO's blog...Mildew is now a flower...have been trying to sell that one all day here.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pangean:

So you think that it is reasonable that I be threatened with violence when I choose to express my opinion? All I can say is - "What a country." BTW - anyone know if theshepard owns a firearm?


If he doesn't, I am more then happy to lend him one :)
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
looks like more rain for ya pot two areas one to your south and another to your east that one to your east is movin towards ya fast
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53809
Quoting pottery:
Good evening.
Its has rained here, constantly, and heavily, for 40 hours. This after a very wet January, and indeed we have only had 1 or 2 dry days so far this year.
This is making me believe, that we are very quickly entering a prolonged period of Tropical Wetting.
Whatever is causing this phenomena, whether it be Global Warming, Global Cooling, SunSpot variations, or Pollution of any kind, is not the issue right now.
It most probably has to do with Financial Meltdowns, which cause enormous amounts of Hot Air to be expounded by so many people, that the clouds are confused.
The term commonly used for this condition, is ClimoBabble.
It is even worse than a toothache.
PDO? NAO? Could be a combination. IIRC, isn't Dec-Jan-Feb supposed to be dry season there?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
An area of heavy rain to the east of me, looks to be moving north before it gets here. The one building to the south looks to be coming this way by midnight. This from the sat. loops.
That's when I have to drive to the airport to meet my daughter, who is returning from Fla., Attended a wedding, of my God Daughter, that I was not able to attend. Anyone know Lighthouse Point ?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
357. beell
For most of the day this blog has centered around the topic of AGW. Most all have voiced an opinion or two.
My finely tuned antennae have sensed that the discussion has suddenly ran out of gas.

Back to lurkdom.
Cheers!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Skyepony:
NASA's ENSO models are forecasting a raging El Nino by summer..

This seems so unlikely right now, given the strength / duration of the current la nina. OTOH, I've seen some massive shifts like that in the historical record, so it's not impossible.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:
True, Futuremet.
Warm all year, and its supposed to be hot and dry now. No sign of that...........
This is mildew weather !


At least you do not have to worry about Hurricanes

You were probably affected by the outer-bands of Dean....

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting futuremet:
Hey CCHS

I am interested on creating a real website. I have already made several attempts, but were not very successful. The primary problem is that no one (excluding WU members) visit my website. Perhaps its is the lack of Search Engine Optimization (SEO).


All I use is Freewebs.com.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:

327
violence where when

somebody told me to bring a stir stick

we were gonna do some stirring of the blog

Absolutely positively
It is your turn to stir KOTG
BTW, what do you use to power those turbo fans on your roof and would you turn them up come summer?

EDITED
Member Since: August 19, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 2490
True, Futuremet.
Warm all year, and its supposed to be hot and dry now. No sign of that...........
This is mildew weather !
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TampaSpin:
Looks like i picked a bad time to log on...
No such thing. . . u can tell me if u think it's going to get down to freezing temps in the coasta GA area this coming weekend. . . who says we HAVE to talk about AGW . . .
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting futuremet:


Strong Enso> highly amplified jet> high wind shear>little tropical cyclogenesis



= lots of rain for my part of Florida...at least historically...but lately, who knows.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:
Trinidad, 11n 61w
Hi there Futuremet.


Marvelous place to live....warm weather all year!

I hate the cold here in FL lol
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Skyepony:
"Who killed the electric car" Rob wins the prize!

Shep~ You should go rent it.. & i will:)


Caught it on DirecTv on one of those premium channels I pay through the nose for but seldom watch...Is and interesting show Shep.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Skyepony:
NASA's ENSO models are forecasting a raging El Nino by summer..



Strong Enso> highly amplified jet> high wind shear>little tropical cyclogenesis

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
346. Skyepony (Mod)
"Who killed the electric car" Rob wins the prize!

Shep~ You should go rent it.. & i will:)
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 162 Comments: 37829
Trinidad, 11n 61w
Hi there Futuremet.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Pottery!

The term commonly used for this condition, is ClimoBabble.

Love that. So much for climatology in Trinidad!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Where do you live pottery?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TampaSpin:


Hey Rob,
It we all go to your blog we could Drink hard liquor, smoke cigars, and cuss all we want..LOL


Everything except the cussin...You are always welcome there Tim!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good evening.
Its has rained here, constantly, and heavily, for 40 hours. This after a very wet January, and indeed we have only had 1 or 2 dry days so far this year.
This is making me believe, that we are very quickly entering a prolonged period of Tropical Wetting.
Whatever is causing this phenomena, whether it be Global Warming, Global Cooling, SunSpot variations, or Pollution of any kind, is not the issue right now.
It most probably has to do with Financial Meltdowns, which cause enormous amounts of Hot Air to be expounded by so many people, that the clouds are confused.
The term commonly used for this condition, is ClimoBabble.
It is even worse than a toothache.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
340. Skyepony (Mod)
NASA's ENSO models are forecasting a raging El Nino by summer..

Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 162 Comments: 37829
328
Thanks sky
Wear your stripes proudly ;>)
Member Since: September 11, 2008 Posts: 9 Comments: 10084

Viewing: 389 - 339

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.