Record -50°F confirmed for Maine; is this inconsistent with global warming?

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:41 PM GMT on February 13, 2009

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The lowest temperature ever recorded in the state of Maine, a -50°F reading taken on January 16, has been confirmed as real, according to a press release issued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Weather Service this week. The new record occurred at 7:15 a.m. Jan. 16 at a remote river gauge in Big Black River (see USGS image at right), about four miles from the Canadian border. It ties the record set in 1933 for New England's lowest temperature, set at Bloomfield, Vermont. The old Maine record was -48°F, set in 1925 at Van Buren. All-time state records are difficult to break. The last time a state record low was set occurred January 5, 1999, when Congerville, Illinois recorded -36°F. Only one state record high temperature has been set in the past the decade--the 120°F temperature measured in Usta, South Dakota on July 15, 2006.

All-time record lows are inconsistent with global warming, right?
An impressive cold wave hit the northern and eastern portions of the U.S. January 11-18, with 17 states reporting record daily lows. In addition to the coldest temperature ever measured in Maine, one station, Waterloo, Iowa, tied its 1962 record for all-time coldest temperature, when the mercury hit -34°F on January 16. If global warming is occurring, we should not expect to see very many all-time city or state records being set. The nation's January-December average temperature has increased at a rate of 0.12°F per decade since 1895, and at a faster rate of 0.41°F per decade during the last 50 years. This 2°F rise in temperature has undoubtedly allowed more high temperature than low temperature records to be broken. However, this is a low enough amount of warming that there should still be a few cold temperature records being set, since the weather is so highly variable.

The statistics support this position. The Waterloo, Iowa mark was only the second time this decade that an all-time record cold temperature has been set at a major U.S. city. The cities I consider are the 303 cities author Chris Burt tracks in his excellent Extreme Weather book. The cites chosen were selected based primarily on their length of weather records (all the records go back to at least 1948, with most going back to the 1800s), and include all the largest cities in the U.S. The only other all-time coldest temperature record set at these cities this decade was the -44°F recorded in Grand Forks, North Dakota on 1/30/2004. By contrast, 49 all-time high temperature marks have been set this decade (Figure 1).

Perhaps a better judge of the impact of global warming on extreme temperatures, though, is to look at record warmest and coldest months. Month-long records are more reflective of the climate than an extreme event lasting just a few days. No all-time coldest month records were at any U.S. cities during January 2009, and it was not even close. Despite the cold blast of Jan. 11-18, the month of January finished out above average in temperature for the lower 48 states. So far this decade, no U.S. major city has set an all-time coldest month record. The last time a coldest month record was set occurred in January, 1994 when Caribou Maine and Bayfield, Wisconsin recorded their coldest month. By contrast, there have been 61 all-time warmest month records set in those same 303 cities between 2000 and 2008 (Figure 1). The summer of 2007 alone saw 42 all-time high (or warmest month ever) records. Just one record was set in the summer of 2008.


Figure 1. Minimum and maximum temperatures records for the U.S. for 303 major stations. The image has been updated through January 2009 to include the one record low set that month. The original version of this image was for 2007, and I modified it to update it for four changes made in the 2008 data. The numbers for the decade of the 2000s are correct, but there are four (out of 606) records that need to be subtracted off some of the earlier decades. Note the the 1930s were the most extreme decade for total number of records set, but the 1920s were the least extreme. U.S. weather has a high degree of variability from decade to decade. Image credit: Chris Burt, Extreme Weather.

Are the pattern of U.S. temperature records due to the Urban Heat Island effect?
There have been 110 all-time high temperature or all-time warmest month records set at the 303 major U.S. cities this decade, and only two such low temperature records set. Is this disparity due to global warming, or the Urban Heat Island effect? The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect occurs when development of former natural areas into pavement and buildings allows more heat to be trapped in cities, particularly at night. During the day, the UHI effect often leads to a slight cooling, since it can increase the amount of turbulence, allowing cooler air to get mixed down to the surface. For example, Moreno-Garcia (1994) found that Barcelona, Spain was 0.2°C cooler for daily maxima and 2.9°C warmer for minima than a nearby rural station.

However, temperature records are typically taken in parks and airports removed from the main heat-trapping areas of cities, and are not as strongly affected as one might expect. There are several reasons for this. One is that when tall buildings are present, they tend to block the view to the sky, meaning that not as much heat can escape upwards. In addition, the presence of moist vegetation keeps the atmosphere moister in park-like areas (which include the grassy fields near airports where temperature measurements are taken). This extra moisture helps cool the atmosphere on a local scale of tens of meters, due to latent heat effects (the energy required to convert liquid water to water vapor). Peterson (2003) found that "Contrary to generally accepted wisdom, no statistically significant impact of urbanization could be found in annual temperatures." The study used satellite-based night-light detection to identify urban areas. Recent research by Spronken-Smith and Oke (1998) concluded that there was a marked park cool island effect within the Urban Heat Island. They found that parks in typical cities in the U.S. have temperatures 1 - 2°C cooler than the surrounding city--and sometimes more than 5°C cooler. While the Urban Heat Island effect probably has contributed to some of the reduction in record low temperatures in the U.S. in the past decade, research by Parker (2004, 2006) and Peterson (2003) theorizes that Urban Heat Island effect is a factor ten or more less important than rising temperatures due to global warming.

Is the Urban Heat Island effect partially responsible for global warming?
Global warming is affecting the entire Earth, including rural areas far from cities, and the 70% of the world covered by ocean. Thus, the Urban Heat Island effect--if not corrected for--can cause only a small impact on the global temperature figures. Since the Urban Heat Island is corrected for, the impact on the observed global warming signal should be negligible. For instance, NASA uses satellite-derived night light observations to classify stations as rural and urban and corrects the urban stations so that they match the trends from the rural stations before gridding the data. Other techniques (such as correcting for population growth) have also been used. Despite these corrections, and the fact that the Urban Heat Island effect impacts only a relatively small portion of the globe, global warming skeptics have persistently used the Urban Heat Island effect to attack the validity of global warming. There are no published peer-reviewed scientific studies that support these attacks.

References
Parker, D.E., 2004, "Large-Scale Warming is not Urban", Nature 432, 290, doi:10.1038/432290a, 2004.

Parker, D.E., 2006, "A Demonstration that Large-Scale Warming is not Urban", J. Climate 19, pp2882-2986, 2006.

Peterson, T.C., "Assessment of urban versus rural in situ surface temperatures in the contiguous United States: No difference found", Journal of Climate, 16, 2941-2959, 2003.

Spronken-Smith, R. A., and T. R. Oke, 1998: "The thermal regime of urban parks in two cities with different summer climates. Int. J. Remote Sens., 19, 20852104.

The surface temperature record and the urban heat island, realclimate.org post, 2004.

My next post will be sometime Tue-Thu.

Jeff Masters

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489. CybrTeddy
7:30 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
106 Days till Hurricane season.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 23611
488. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
7:29 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Fiji Meteorological Services
Tropical Disturbance Advisory Number ONE
TROPICAL DEPRESSION TEN-F
12:00 PM FST February 16 2009
==================================

At 0:00 AM UTC, Tropical Depression TEN-F (1001 hPa) located at 17.9S 169.6E has 10 minute sustained winds of 30 to 35 knots within 60 to 180 NM of the center in the northeastern quadrant and 60 to 120 NM in the southwestern quadrant. The depression is reported as moving west at 6 knots. Position FAIR based on multispectral visible/enhance infrared radar with animation and latest Quikscat and microwave passes.

The low level circulation center is exposed with deep ocnvection confined to the north and east. Spiral bands becoming organized and trying to wrap around the center with convective tops cooling in the past 6 hours. TD TEN-F lies along the northern periphery of an upper anticyclonic circulation under 15-20 knot shear. Outflow is good to north and fair to the east, but restricted elsewhere.

Dvorak analysis based on wrap of 0.3 on LOG10 spiral yielding DT=2.0, MET=PT=2.0 FT=2.0

Thus T2.0/2.0/D0.5/ 24 HRS

An upper short wave trough is approaching from he west which may enhance development. CIMSS indicates increasing shear to the west of the system. TD TEN-F is expected to be steered weswards under the influence of low level easterlies. Sea surface temperature around the area is 29C. Global models agree on a westward track and then southwest with little intensification.

POTENTIAL FOR 10F TO DEVELOP INTO A TROPICAL CYCLONE IN THE NEXT 24 TO 48 HOURS IS LOW TO MODERATE.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 50 Comments: 44821
487. futuremet
5:40 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting RTLSNK:
Wait just a minute, nobody said anything about having to shovel any manure, I said I was going to take her somewhere for a pony ride, not "buy" her a pony.


I like your avatar RTLNSK

is that an eagle?
Member Since: July 19, 2008 Posts: 43 Comments: 4051
486. Orcasystems
5:26 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
NUKE SUBS CRASH: BRIT AND FRENCH BOATS COLLIDE UNDERWATER...

And someone mentioned Nuke cars today?
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
485. theshepherd
5:25 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Liann:


Yeah, I'm sure there's still a lot of that "Official Gommint Policy Bush Denialism" in the pipeline. In a few more months it will be all flushed out of the system and actual genuine science by named human beings, published in actual genuine science journals that are peer reviewed for accuracy sake (as opposed to anonymous Gommint reports by drones put in place as reward for brown-nosing party honchos), will once again live in America. There's actually a Nobel Prize winning scientist in the president's cabinet now.

If you want "science" even you can do in your own home, all you need is a junior-high-school level education and a calculator to add, subtract, multiply and divide. The numbers are "official gommint numbers" accepted under Bush and every other president as the best numbers humans know how to get. Just add 'em up yourself and don't let any NOAA flunkies sell you any hokum. Add 'em up for yourself.

See here:
http://www.h2-pv.us/1/1/stormy.html

Don't like the results? Add 'em up for yourself. That's why we paid all those taxes to send you to school, to learn to add for yourself, without Darth KarlRove telling you "these are not the factoids that you are looking for". Don't be bamboozled. These are NOAA figures.

That all sounds purdy "Genuine".
BTW can you throw one more "Bush" out there? Every good "Stool" needs at least three good legs.
Member Since: September 11, 2008 Posts: 9 Comments: 10077
484. Liann
5:08 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Skyepony:
NOAA: No Detectable Impact From Humans On Hurricanes; Simulations Point To Stronger, Fewer Hurricanes


Yeah, I'm sure there's still a lot of that "Official Gommint Policy Bush Denialism" in the pipeline. In a few more months it will be all flushed out of the system and actual genuine science by named human beings, published in actual genuine science journals that are peer reviewed for accuracy sake (as opposed to anonymous Gommint reports by drones put in place as reward for brown-nosing party honchos), will once again live in America. There's actually a Nobel Prize winning scientist in the president's cabinet now.

If you want "science" even you can do in your own home, all you need is a junior-high-school level education and a calculator to add, subtract, multiply and divide. The numbers are "official gommint numbers" accepted under Bush and every other president as the best numbers humans know how to get. Just add 'em up yourself and don't let any NOAA flunkies sell you any hokum. Add 'em up for yourself.

See here:
http://www.h2-pv.us/1/1/stormy.html

Don't like the results? Add 'em up for yourself. That's why we paid all those taxes to send you to school, to learn to add for yourself, without Darth KarlRove telling you "these are not the factoids that you are looking for". Don't be bamboozled. These are NOAA figures.
Member Since: September 2, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 15
483. Orcasystems
4:59 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting surfmom:
Oh yeah -- horse and weather -- you get to experience lots of weather with a pony. Think of everything you can teach your granddaughter. She will never want to leave.


Yup... Grandpa would be her hero... she would want to spend all her weekends there.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
482. surfmom
4:57 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Oh yeah -- horse and weather -- you get to experience lots of weather with a pony. Think of everything you can teach your granddaughter. She will never want to leave.
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
481. surfmom
4:54 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting hurristat:


I decide to randomly waltz in and I get this.... Ahhh... I love WU.


My present to YOU LOL (pls. forgive me : )
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
480. Orcasystems
4:52 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting RTLSNK:
Wait just a minute, nobody said anything about having to shovel any manure, I said I was going to take her somewhere for a pony ride, not "buy" her a pony.

Thats sort of like watching a Stri.... no, forget that one..

You would say no to that cute little princess.. you would tease her with a ride on a pony... but with that huge yard, you wouldn't buy her a pony?

Look at it this way... you'll like this idea.

have a horse.. get a saddle...

New Cowboy boats... rifle scabbard.. new rifle.. chaps... holster... maybe a 44-40... ohh both the pistol and rifle....lariat... all the new toys...

PS.. you wouldn't have to mow the lawn.. or fertilize it either.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
479. hurristat
4:47 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting TampaSpin:
Before i was signing off i just seen this......


Japan economy shrinks at fastest rate in 35 years 2 minutes ago
Japan's economy contracted at the fastest pace in 35 years in the fourth quarter as a collapse in export demand drained life from the world's second-biggest economy.


then again...
Member Since: October 15, 2008 Posts: 11 Comments: 2305
478. hurristat
4:46 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting surfmom:


Like I said incredible bonding experience to be w/your kid shoveling manure in the rain --


I decide to randomly waltz in and I get this.... Ahhh... I love WU.
Member Since: October 15, 2008 Posts: 11 Comments: 2305
477. RTLSNK
4:45 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Wait just a minute, nobody said anything about having to shovel any manure, I said I was going to take her somewhere for a pony ride, not "buy" her a pony.
Member Since: September 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 20659
476. TampaSpin
4:45 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Before i was signing off i just seen this......


Japan economy shrinks at fastest rate in 35 years 2 minutes ago
Japan's economy contracted at the fastest pace in 35 years in the fourth quarter as a collapse in export demand drained life from the world's second-biggest economy.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
475. Orcasystems
4:38 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting surfmom:


Like I said incredible bonding experience to be w/your kid shoveling manure in the rain --


I have heard there was lots of uses for that stuff before... but bonding seems a little extreme.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
474. surfmom
4:34 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


His yard is big enough...
Seem fair to have that young lady feeding greens to a real animal instead of the three cement MeerKats... wouldn't you agree?


Like I said incredible bonding experience to be w/your kid shoveling manure in the rain --
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
473. futuremet
4:27 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


Acts like a troll... talks like a troll.. attacks like a troll.... ergo... Troll


I just checked his recent posts....calling someone a ~punk~ is unacceptable
Member Since: July 19, 2008 Posts: 43 Comments: 4051
472. Orcasystems
4:22 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting futuremet:


Is pangean a troll?

he has been here a while....I don't think he is


Acts like a troll... talks like a troll.. attacks like a troll.... ergo... Troll
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
471. Orcasystems
4:21 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting surfmom:


Whoaa Nelly -- That's a big cookie!!


His yard is big enough...
Seem fair to have that young lady feeding greens to a real animal instead of the three cement MeerKats... wouldn't you agree?
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
470. futuremet
4:20 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting RTLSNK:
Tropical Amanda

Tropical Amander

Pander Amander

Amander Pander

Tropical Pander

Pan Gean ???


Is pangean a troll?

he has been here a while....I don't think he is
Member Since: July 19, 2008 Posts: 43 Comments: 4051
469. surfmom
4:20 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Always better to start w/ a lease -- to be sure the kid really likes the work.... they gotta like the work.

and that's not a judgement -- Youngbuck always loved the work. Rainy, cold, heat -- it's a wonderful experience... a great way to grow a kid -- they learn a lot about life, responsibility...love...I like the partnership it afforded Youngbuck and me.

And being outside --part of the weather, seasons -- that's real good too
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
468. surfmom
4:14 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


SF :)
I hear Snake might be looking for a pony for his Granddaughter


Whoaa Nelly -- That's a big cookie!!
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
467. surfmom
4:14 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
So many names ...... tiresome
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
466. Orcasystems
4:13 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting surfmom:
Aloha King of the Sea -- I'm up late tonight...I might get waves this Thursday -- TampaSpin Says SO


SF :)
I hear Snake might be looking for a pony for his Granddaughter
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
465. TampaSpin
4:12 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


Way to much information...
Snake in translucent silk... show your wife... ideas... lalalalalalaalal I can't hear you.


With that idea im out!.....LOL
Good nite everyone!
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
464. surfmom
4:12 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Aloha King of the Sea -- I'm up late tonight...I might get waves this Thursday -- TampaSpin Says SO
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
463. TampaSpin
4:10 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


Has the Mrs and kid mellowed him out a bit yet?


He is actually a very nice young man. And, yes i think he has grown up alot....thank God!
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
462. Orcasystems
4:09 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting TampaSpin:


I will show this to the wife...maybe she will get some ideas from it tonite...LOL


Way to much information...
Snake in translucent silk... show your wife... ideas... lalalalalalaalal I can't hear you.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
461. Skyepony (Mod)
4:09 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
NOAA: No Detectable Impact From Humans On Hurricanes; Simulations Point To Stronger, Fewer Hurricanes
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 161 Comments: 37424
460. TampaSpin
4:07 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


I wouldn't go to bed until your sure you have that image out of your mind.. you could wake up in a rubber room and a suit with tied sleeves


I will show this to the wife...maybe she will get some ideas from it tonite...LOL
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
459. Orcasystems
4:07 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting TampaSpin:


Hey JFV visits my blog all the time and has sent me an email several times....he is doing well.


Has the Mrs and kid mellowed him out a bit yet?
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
458. TampaSpin
4:05 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


You know its going to be a fun season when people start this early. Really makes you miss JFV


Hey JFV visits my blog all the time and has sent me an email several times....he is doing well.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
457. Orcasystems
4:05 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting TampaSpin:


Orca...what are you doing to us all....our Minds are very screwed up now.....i think its bedtime for me.


I wouldn't go to bed until your sure you have that image out of your mind.. you could wake up in a rubber room and a suit with tied sleeves
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
456. Orcasystems
4:04 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting TampaSpin:
One of the funnier things last year until someone realized it was how someone dubbed CCHSWeather......that unreal.


You know its going to be a fun season when people start this early. Really makes you miss JFV
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
455. TampaSpin
4:03 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting Orcasystems:


Thank god your a lot smarter then you look in that angel outfit :) Mind you. ... this Genie thing has me worried.


PS... Please.... pretty please... no translucent silk parts.....


Orca...what are you doing to us all....our Minds are very screwed up now.....i think its bedtime for me.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
454. TampaSpin
4:02 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
One of the funnier things last year until someone realized it was how someone dubbed CCHSWeather......that unreal.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
453. Orcasystems
3:59 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting RTLSNK:
Tropical Amanda

Tropical Amander

Pander Amander

Amander Pander

Tropical Pander

Pan Gean ???


Thank god your a lot smarter then you look in that angel outfit :) Mind you. ... this Genie thing has me worried.


PS... Please.... pretty please... no translucent silk parts.....
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
452. Orcasystems
3:58 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Quoting RTLSNK:
Tropical Amanda

Tropical Amander

Pander Amander

Amander Pander

Tropical Pander

Pan Gean ???


Storm******
a bunch of different spellings
Amanada******
Same idea.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
451. RTLSNK
3:56 AM GMT on February 16, 2009
Tropical Amanda

Tropical Amander

Pander Amander

Amander Pander

Tropical Pander

Pan Gean ???
Member Since: September 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 20659
Quoting Orcasystems:


ROFL, if I could remember, I wouldn't have asked


I was talking to myself......LOL..remember....Stormyeyes
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
449. Skyepony (Mod)
Hole punch clouds seen from satellite the other day in TX
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 161 Comments: 37424
Quoting TampaSpin:


It used 3 different names......what was it....


ROFL, if I could remember, I wouldn't have asked
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
Quoting Orcasystems:


What was that abnoxious little persons name from last year? This may be it again with a different nick?


It used 3 different names......what was it....
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
446. beell
C'mon pg! you can do it! Dig us up another nugget of your wisdom!

Photobucket
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pangean:


I guess you're right. The spinmeister is an obnoxious little punk, but I'm just just gonna let it go. Thanks for the advice. Goodnight all.


What was that abnoxious little persons name from last year? This may be it again with a different nick?
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
pangeon, SAVE the arguments for the Recon in the Tropical wave not finding a Closed Circulation.
"West wind, and winds of 60 MPH this things a TS"
"The west wind was recorded on the North side of the storm"

I like Pre-Season because it SHOULD be quite.
If we get massive arguments in February Im scared of what the 2009 arguments will bring. 2008 however was less of arguments than 2007.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 23611
443. beell
What are the laws of biology and when did they become simple? I can't believe I did all of that work in college before they came out with BioLite.

So did you go back and review the Checks on Density-Dependent Population Growth?

Sorry to hear you struggled with this!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
later bahaH good sleep
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
hes been at it all day baha with a few different folks
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
i fixed 431...see i told ya....LOL
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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