Navajo Code Talkers role in WWII
I thought I would do something a bit different. I wish to honor a particular group of Marines who without them in the second world war, the results for many would not be the same freedoms we cherish today.
THE NAVAJO CODE TALKERS
It is a great American story that is still largely unknown—the story of a group of young Navajo men who answered the call of duty, who performed a service no one else could, and in the process became great warriors and patriots. Their unbreakable code saved thousands of lives and helped end WWII.
During the early months of WWII, Japanese intelligence experts broke every code the US forces devised. They were able to anticipate American actions at an alarming rate. With plenty of fluent English speakers at their disposal, they sabotaged messages and issued false commands to ambush Allied troops. To combat this, increasingly complex codes were initiated. At Guadalcanal, military leaders finally complained that sending and receiving these codes required hours of encryption and decryption—up to two and a half hours for a single message. They rightly argued the military needed a better way to communicate.
When Phillip Johnston, a civilian living in California learned of the crisis, he had the answer. As the son of a Protestant missionary, Johnston had grown up on the Navajo reservation and was one of less than 30 outsiders fluent in their difficult language. He realized that since it had no alphabet and was almost impossible to master without early exposure, the Navajo language had great potential as an indecipherable code. After an impressive demonstration to top commanders, he was given permission to begin a Navajo Code Talker test program.
Their elite unit was formed in early 1942 when the first 29 Navajo Code Talkers were recruited by Johnston. Although the code was modified and expanded throughout the war, this first group was the one to conceive it. Accordingly, they are often referred to reverently as the "original 29". Many of these enlistees were just boys; most had never been away from home before. Often lacking birth certificates, it was impossible to verify ages. After the war it was discovered that recruits as young as 15 and as old as 35 had enlisted. Age notwithstanding, they easily bore the rigors of basic training, thanks to their upbringing in the southwestern desert.
The code they created at Camp Pendleton was as ingenious as it was effective. It originated as approximately 200 terms—growing to over 600 by war's end—and could communicate in 20 seconds what took coding machines of the time 30 minutes to do. It consisted of native terms that were associated with the respective military terms they resembled. For example, the Navajo word for turtle meant "tank," and a dive-bomber was a "chicken hawk." To supplement those terms, words could be spelled out using Navajo terms assigned to individual letters of the alphabet—the selection of the Navajo term being based on the first letter of the Navajo word's English meaning. For instance, "Wo-La-Chee" means "ant," and would represent the letter "A". In this way the Navajo Code Talkers could quickly and concisely communicate with each other in a manner even uninitiated Navajos could not understand.
Once trained, the Navajo Code Talkers were sent to Marine divisions in the Pacific theater of WWII. Despite some initial skepticism by commanding officers, they quickly gained a distinguished reputation for their remarkable abilities. In the field, they were not allowed to write any part of the code down as a reference. They became living codes, and even under harried battle conditions, had to rapidly recall every word with utmost precision or risk hundreds or thousands of lives. In the battle for Iwo Jima, in the first 48 hours alone, they coded over 800 transmissions with perfect accuracy. Their heroism is widely acknowledged as the lynchpin of victory in the pivotal conflict.
It is the only unbroken code in modern military history. It baffled the Japanese forces of WWII. It was even indecipherable to a Navajo soldier taken prisoner and tortured on Bataan. In fact, during test evaluations, Marine cryptologists said they couldn't even transcribe the language, much less decode it.
The secret code created by the Navajo Code Talkers was a surprisingly simple marvel of cryptographic innovation. It contained native terms that were associated with specialized or commonly used military language, as well as native terms that represented the letters in the alphabet.
In a simple, memorable way, the military terms tended to resemble the things with which they were associated. For example, the Navajo word for tortoise, "chay-da-gahi," meant tank, and a dive-bomber, "gini," was a "chicken hawk," (a bird which dives on its prey). Sometimes the translation was more literal, as in "besh-lo" (iron fish) which meant submarine; other times it was metaphorical, as in "ne-he-mah" (our mother), which meant America.
English words that didn't have an associated term could be spelled out using Navajo words that represented letters of the alphabet. The selection of a given term was based on the first letter of the English meaning of the Navajo word. For instance, "Wo-La-Chee" means "ant," and would represent the letter "A". Other "A" words such as "be-la-sana" (apple), or "tse-nill" (ax), would also be substituted in order to eliminate excessive repetition, which might allow the code to be cracked.
Widely acknowledged to be instrumental in the success of every major engagement of the Pacific from Guadalcanal to Okinawa, this brilliant code allowed embattled regiments of Marines to communicate quickly, concisely, and above all, securely. It saved countless lives and helped end the war.
After the war, the Navajo Code Talkers returned home as heroes without a heroes' welcome. Their code had been so successful, it was considered a military secret too important to divulge. They remained silent heroes until more than two decades later. Even after declassification of the code in 1968, it took many years before any official recognition was given. In 2001, nearly 60 years after they created their legendary code, the Navajo Code Talkers finally received well-deserved Congressional Medals of Honor.
I think it is about time we give these brave warriors the recognition they so deserve. The last living members to serve as code talkers will be going to NYC to participate in the parade this year.
Now, in their 80's and 90's, only a few of these silent heroes remain. Many of their stories have yet to be documented for posterity. At the Navajo Code Talker Association, they are working to create a lasting record of the Navajo Code Talker legacy. Help preserve the greatest stories never told by contacting them at their website: ....http://www.navajocodetalkers.org/